Mikhail Kryzhanovsky, a former KGB and CIA, the author of the White House Special Handbook, Espionage and Counterespionage Handbook.
They will unite to rule the world. We have to kill them to save it.
"The Base", "The Foundation", is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist group founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden during the Soviet–Afghan War. Оperates as a network of Islamic extremists and Salafist jihadists. 1998 United States embassy bombings, the September 11 attacks, the 2002 Bali bombings, 2004 Ashoura massacre, the 2006 Sadr City bombings, the April 2007 Baghdad bombings and the 2007 Yazidi community bombings
The death of Osama bin Laden, have led al-Qaeda's operations to shift from top-down organization and planning of attacks, to the planning of attacks which are carried out by a loose network of associated groups and lone-wolf operators. Al-Qaeda attacks which include suicide attacks and the simultaneous bombing of several targets. Al-Qaeda ideologues envision the removal of all foreign influences in Muslim countries.. Following the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011, the group has been led by Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahiri, and as of 2021 has reportedly suffered from a deterioration of central command over its regional operations.
2. The Islamic State Khorasan
ISIS-K, is the Afghan offshoot of the Islamic State terror group, which publicly beheaded foreign journalists and inflicted brutalities on captured Kurds and others in Iraq and Syria. Based east of Kabul in the Kunar and the Nangarhar provinces near the Pakistani border, ISIS-K had anywhere from 1, 500 to 2, 200 fighters just three years ago, according to a study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies from 2018.
The core ISIS-K group in Kunar “consists mainly of Afghan and Pakistani nationals, while smaller groups located in Badakhshan, Kunduz and Sar-e-Pol are predominantly made up of local ethnic Tajiks and Uzbeks, ” the Center for Strategic and International Studies study said.
ISIS-K and the Taliban are competitive organizations, trying to appeal to the same recruits and the same funding sources.
ISIS-K and the Islamic State group were once allied with Al Qaeda, the terrorist group which was in Afghanistan under Taliban protection.
While the Taliban are a “populist movement” focused almost exclusively on Afghanistan, the goal of ISIS-K is to build an Islamic caliphate across the Middle East and Asia that would include Afghanistan.
Unlike the Taliban, who solidified their position by retaking control of Afghanistan at lightning speed, ISIS-K is trying to reassert itself and one way of doing so by launching a “high-profile attack. ”
On August 26, 2021 13 U. S. service members and at least 170 Afghan civilians died in a suicide bombing near the international airport in Kabul. ISIS-K, claimed responsibility for the attack.
3. The Taliban
"Students'' or "seekers", refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), a Deobandi Islamist religious-political movement and military organization in Afghanistan. Еmerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War and largely consisted of students (talib). The totalitarian Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital was transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in the War in Afghanistan.
In 2001, reportedly 2, 500 Arabs under command of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden fought for the Taliban. Following the Fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, the Taliban regained control of Afghanistan.
HOW TO KILL BIG 3
Shooting, explosives or poison (cyanides, curare). Use a sniper or a "mouse" car (loaded with explosives and parked on the object’s route) if access to the object is impossible because of high security. Anyway, the murder is obvious and investigation is inevitable.
The best thing to do is to recruit or " install" somebody with access to the object’s security system and get information on his schedule (plus health and habits), places where he likes to relax. Try to gain access to his phone.
Then prepare the plan and train three groups: surveillance (with optics and radios), action (includes snipers, explosives technicians or staged accidents specialists), and security (these people neutralize bodyguards, witnesses and other people who could interrupt the action; they complete the action if the action group fails; and they can neutralize the action group later, if planned so; they "cover" the safe retreat of action group and "cut" the chase).
For some operations you can modify the ammunition to make it more deadly – hollow cuts in the tip of the bullets will cause the lead to fragment upon impact, making a huge exit hole. You reach same effect using bullets with a drop of mercury in a hollow tip and you can also coat bullets with arsenic or cyanide. Use depleted, non-radioactive uranium bullets (uranium is much heavier than lead – it can be used to make a bullet with a smaller slug and a larger portion of explosive). Teflon bullets are good because with Teflon’s antifriction characteristics they pierce bullet proof vests.
Staged accidents (suicides, catastrophes, drowning or fall, robbery or rape followed by murder, technical accident (fire, electricity, gas), drugs, weapons, poison, explosives misuse. Also, staged natural death (stroke, heart attack, chronic illness as a result of using special technical devices like irradiation).
PART 1. Anti-terror
T e r r o r is a political tactic, a form of unconventional and psychological warfare against people or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives.
The #1 method is the act of violence devised to have a big national or international impact.
“Red” terror is aimed against certain politicians; “black” refers more to mass murders. The two can be mixed.
– to scare the nation
– neutralize the government and show its inability to rule the country
– to make the government admit that terror organization is a real political power
– to draw media and public (international) attention to a certain political problem
– to provoke the government to use military force and start civil war
– to prove some political or religious ideology
– to prevent or delay important political decisions or legislation
– to discourage foreign investments or foreign government assistance programs
– change the government through revolution or civil war
Types of terror.
Political terrorism – violent acts designed primarily to generate fear in the nation for political purposes. Civil disorders are very effective here..
Non-political terrorism – terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes..
Official or state terrorism – referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.
Groups seeking recognition require events that have high probability of attracting media attention. Specific incidents may be suicide bombing in public place (e. g. a green market), hijacking of an aircraft, the kidnapping of a politician or other prominent person, the seizing of occupied buildings (schools, hospitals) or other hostage barricade situations. Once they gain attention, the terrorists may demand that political statement be disseminated. Terrorist groups sometimes use organizational names or labels designed to imply legitimacy or widespread support. For example, a tiny isolated group may use “front”, “army”, or “brigade” in its name to achieve this effect.
Coercion is the attempt to force a desired behavior by individuals, groups, or governments. This objective calls for a strategy of a very selective targeting which rely on publicly announced bombings, destruction of property and other acts which are initially less violent than the taking of human life. Contemporary examples include the bombing of corporate headquarters and banking facilities with little or no loss of life.
Intimidation attempts to prevent individuals or groups from acting: coercion attempts to force actions. Terrorists may use intimidation to reduce the effectiveness of security forces by making them afraid to act. Intimidation can discourage competent citizens from seeking or accepting positions within the government. The threat of violence can also keep the general public from taking part in important political activities such as voting. As in the case of coercion, terrorists use a strategy of selective targeting although they may intend the targets to look as though they were chosen indiscriminately.
Provoking overreaction on the part of government forces. The strategy normally calls for attacking targets symbolic of the government ( for example, the police, the military, and other officials). Attacks of this type demonstrate vulnerability to terrorist acts and contribute to a loss of confidence in the government’s ability to provide security. More important, if the security forces resort to a heavy-handed response, the resulting oppression can create public sympathy, passive acceptance, or active support for an insurgent or terrorist group.
5. Insurgency support.
Terrorism in support of an insurgency is likely to include provocation, intimidation, coercion and the quest for recognition.. Terrorism can also aid an insurgency by causing the government to overextend itself in attempting to protect all possible targets. Other uses of terrorist skills in insurgencies include acquiring funds, coercing recruits, obtaining logistical support, and enforcing internal discipline.
The media is a valuable “helper” by giving terrorists international recognition and also to attract recruits, obtaining funds. Once they gain attention, the terrorists may demand that political statements be disseminated. The danger is that this kind of attention tends to incite acts of violence by other terrorist groups. Terrorists use different methods and taking hostages, bombing, arson (low risk action) assassinations, ambushes and hijacking are the most popular ones.
Factors that may contribute to terrorism:high population growth rates, high unemployment, weak economies, extremism, ethnic, religious or territorial conflict.
Organization and tactic
Organized terror is “organized construction”:
–search and recruitment of people (active and passive supporters), including informants and supporters in government agencies, counterintelligence and police
–getting money (robberies, illegal operations with drugs and weapons, legal business, searching for donors with the same political views)
–security system, including a system of “cells” or small groups (some groups may organize multifunctional cells that combine several skills into one tactical unit). Preparing places where members can hide, relax, get medical care; keep weapons, money, special literature. System also includes fake IDs and counter-intelligence (detection of traitors, preventing collapse of the group and uncontrolled criminal activity (robberies)
–training camps (shooting, working with explosives). If the group is state supported or directed, the leadership usually includes one or more members who have been trained and educated by the sponsoring state
–“brainwashing” sessions (the group may include professional terrorists for hire who are not necessarily ideologically motivated)
–planning the actions
–making special connections with other groups and mafia
The typical terrorist organization is pyramidal. This format takes more people to support operations than to carry them out. Therefore, the majority of people who work in terrorist organizations serve to keep terrorists in the field. The most common job in terrorist groups is support, not combat.
Usually, organization is divided into 4 levels:
1st level. Command level. The smallest, most secret group at the top.
2nd level. Active cadre. Responsible for carrying out the mission of the terrorist organization..
3rd level. Active supporters. The active supporters are critical to terrorist operations. Any group can carry out a bombing, but to maintain a campaign of bombings takes support. Active supporters keep the terrorists in the field. They maintain communication channels, provide safe houses, gather intelligence. This is the largest internal group in the organization, and one which can be effectively countered by economic measures.
4th level. Passive supporters.
Most terrorist groups number fewer than 50 people and are incapable of mounting a long-term campaign. Under the command of only a few people, the group is divided according to specific tasks. Intelligence sections are responsible for assessing targets and planning operations. Support sections provides the means necessary to carry out the assault, and the tactical units are responsible for the actual terrorist action.
Terrorist organizations tend to have two primary types of subunits: a cell and a column.
The cell is the most basic type. Composed of 4 to 6 people, the cell usually has a mission specialty, but it my be a tactical cell or an intelligence section. In some organizations, the duties of tactical cells very with the assignment. Other cells may exist as support wing.
Sometimes groups of cells will form to create columns. Columns are semiautonomous conglomerations of cells with a variety of specialties and a separate command structure. As combat units, columns have questionable effectiveness. They are usually too cumbersome to be used in major operations, and the secrecy demanded by terrorism prevents effective inter-column cooperation. Hence, columns are most often found fulfilling a function of combat support.
Terrorist groups can be divided into three categories:
a. non-state supported groups which operate autonomously, receiving no support from any government
b. state supported groups, which operate alone but receive support from one or more governments
c. state directed groups, which operate as the agents of a government, receiving substantial intelligence, logistic, and operational support
An overt seizure of one or more people to gain publicity, concessions, or ransom in return for the release of the hostage or hostages. While dramatic, hostage situations are risky for the terrorist in an unfriendly environment..
You must always negotiate if hostages have been taken. Negotiation produces some advantages for you. These advantages are: (a) the longer situation is prolonged, the more intelligence can be gathered on the location, motivation and identity, (b) the passage of time generally reduces anxiety, allowing the hostage taker to assess the situation rationally, (c) given enough time, the hostages may find a way to escape on their own, (c) the necessary resolve to kill or hold hostages lessens with timer, (d) terrorists may make mistakes. The negotiation team must have information to support negotiations (you get it from interviews with witnesses, escaped and released hostages, and captured suspects — it’s very important to get the identities, personalities, motives, habits and abilities of the offenders).
One of the complications facing you in a siege involving hostages is the Stockholm syndrome where sometimes hostages can develop a sympathetic rapport with their captors. If this helps keep them safe from harm, this is considered to be a good thing, but there have been cases where hostages have tried to shield the captors during an assault or refused to co- operate with the authorities in bringing prosecutions. (In Britain if the siege involves perpetrators who are considered by the government to be terrorists, then if an assault is to take place, the civilian authorities hand command and control over to military).
Advantage includes it’s attention-getting capacity and the terrorist’s ability to control casualties through time of detonation and placement of the device. The bomb is a popular weapon, because it is cheap to produce, easy to make, has variable uses, and is difficult to detect and trace after the action. In Iraq they usually use booby-trapped vehicles and car- bombs. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other vehicle and then exploded. It is commonly used as a weapon of assassination, terrorism or guerrilla warfare to kill the occupant(s) of the vehicle, people near the blast site, or to damage buildings or other property. Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a relatively large amount of explosives without attracting suspicion. The earliest car bombs were intended for assassination. These were often wired to the car’s ignition system – to explode when the car was started. Ignition triggering is now rare, as it is easy to detect and hard to install – interfering with the circuitry is time-consuming and car alarms can be triggered by drains on the car’s electrical system. Also, the target may start the car remotely (inadvertently or otherwise), or the target may be a passenger a safe distance away when the car starts. It is now more common for assassination bombs to be affixed to the underside of the car and then detonated remotely or by the car motion. The bomb is exploded as the target approaches or starts the vehicle or, more commonly, after the vehicle begins to move, when the target is more likely to be inside. For
this reason, security guards have to check the underside of vehicles with a long mirror mounted on a pole.
The effectiveness of a car bomb is that an explosion detonated inside a car is momentarily contained. If the force of explosion were to double each fraction of a second and the car were to contain the explosion for one second before its chassis gave way, this would result in a much greater force then if the detonation took place outside the car. Therefore a greater amount of damage is obtained from a given amount of explosive. Car bombs are also used by suicide bombers who seek to ram the car into a building and simultaneously detonate it. Defending against a car bomb involves keeping vehicles at a distance from vulnerable targets by using Jersey barriers, concrete blocks or by hardening buildings to withstand an explosion. Where major public roads pass near government buildings, road closures may be the only option (thus, the portion of Pennsylvania Avenue immediately behind the White house is closed to traffic. These tactics encourage potential bombers to target unprotected targets, such as markets.
A major reason for the popularity of suicide attacks is tactical advantages over other types of terrorism. A terrorist can conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, infiltrate heavily guarded targets and he does not need a remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams. Suicide attacks often target poorly- guarded, non-military facilities and personnel. Examples of different suicide attacks include:
–attempted suicide attack with a plane as target
–suicide car bomb
–suicide attack by a boat with explosives
–suicide attack by a woman
–suicide attack by a bicycle with explosives
–suicide attack by a hijacked plane with fuel: September 11, 2001 attacks
–suicide attack by diverting a bus to an abyss
–suicide attack with guns
A well-planned ambush seldom fails. The terrorists have time on their side, and can choose a suitable place. Raid (armed attack) on facilities usually have one of three purposes: to gain access to radio or TV stations (to make a public statement); to demonstrate the government’s inability to guarantee the security of critical facilities; or to acquire money and weapons ( by bank pr armory robberies).
Assassination is the oldest terrorist tactic. Targets mostly are government officials, as well as the defectors from the terrorist group.
Kidnapping is usually a covert action and the perpetrators may not make themselves known for some time, while hostage
–takers seek immediate publicity. Because of the time involved, a successful kidnapping requires elaborate planning and logistics, although the risk to the terrorists is less than in a hostage situation.
Its objective is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to the terrorists’ actions on utilities, communications and transportation systems. In the more developed countries they are so interdependent that a serious disruption of one affects all and gains immediate public attention. Sabotage of industrial, commercial or military facilities is a tool to show vulnerability of the target and the society while simultaneously making a statement or political, or monetary demand.
A threat against a person’s life causes him and those around him to devote more time and effort to security measures.. A bomb threat can close down a commercial building, empty a theater, or disrupt a transportation system at no cost to the terrorist. The longer-term effects of false alarms on the security forces are more dangerous than the temporary disruption of the hoax. Repeated threats that do not materialize dull the analytical and operational effectiveness of security personnel.
Homegrown terrorists are not easy targets, especially if you deal with a "lonely wolf" (individual) or a separate small group of 2-3 people. They are not connected to any terrorist groups, organizations, radical parties, mafia.
That's why you have to:
1. Recruit assets among illegal weapons dealers, they have to inform you about anybody, trying to buy a gun and a lot of ammunition, automatic weapons, explosives.
2. The assets have to inform you about any person with radical views and ready for radical action (to blackmail the government and make it change it's policy).
NSA has to fix all phone calls where you hear key words like "kill", "gun", "explosive", "explosion", "FBI", "surveillance", "kidnapping", "sniper", "torture", etc.
3. Detect people who search Internet, looking for instructions on "home made" explosives.
4. Watch terrorists in jail – they might keep contacts with with those outside. Watch terrorists who are out of jail.
5. Keep under control all shooting ranges in the country and people who try to get training as snipers.
6. ATTENTION: keep under control scientists who work with explosives. And companies which produce weapons, explosives, and sell them.
7. Watch army veterans with radical views, pay special attention to those who served in special forces and involved in war zones special operations.
Now comes my instruction
Responses to terrorism include:
–targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations and enhanced police powers
–target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers
–pre-emptive or reactive military action
–increased intelligence and surveillance activities
–pre-emptive humanitarian activities
–more permissive interrogation and detention policies
–official acceptance of torture as a valid tool
You must gather the following information:
1. Group information.
Names, ideology (political or social philosophy), history of the group, dates significant to the group, and dates when former leaders have been killed or imprisoned (terrorist groups often strike on important anniversary dates).
2. Financial information.
Source of funds, proceeds from criminal activities, bank accounts information (sudden influxes of funding or bank withdrawals indicate preparation for activity). It’s also important to determine the group’s legal and financial supporters. Generally, anyone who would write an official letter of protest or gather names on a petition for a terrorist is a legal supporter. Sometimes, an analysis of support will reveal linkages and mergers with other groups.
3. Personnel information.
List of leaders, list of members (and former members), any personnel connections with other groups of similar ideology. The skills of all group members (weapons expertise, electronics expertise) – knowing the skills of the group is an important part of threat assessment. If the philosophy revolves around one leader, it’s important to know what will occur if something happens to that leader. Often, the analysis of family background is useful to determine how radically a leader or member was raised. Group structure, particularly if the organizational pattern is cellular, determines who knows whom.
As a group, terrorists are very team-oriented and always prepared for suicide missions. They are well-prepared for their mission, are willing to take risks and are attack-oriented. If captured, they will usually not confess or snitch on others as ordinary criminals do. Traditional law enforcement are not that effective when it comes to the investigation or intelligence of terrorism.
4. Location information.
Location of group’s headquarters, location of group’s “safe” houses (where they hide from authorities) and location of the group’s “stash” houses (where they hide weapons and supplies). Regular attacks on “stash” houses is the most frequently used counterterrorism technique). It’ important to specify the underground that exists where terrorists can flee. Terrorists like to live in communal homes instead of living alone.
1. Knowing just the functions of terrorism is a fight. Since terrorists are usually trying to provoke government’s overreaction, anything the government can do to keep itself from overreacting works against them.
2. Since terrorists are usually trying to provoke government’s overreaction, anything the government can do to keep itself from overreacting works against them. Since terrorists are trying to gain control of the media, anything on the part of the media which stifles exposure also stiles terrorism. Bombings make the best pictures (watch TV! ), that’s why terrorists use them mostly.
3. Terrorists often demand to release political prisoners, but this is never a true objective. The real trick is politization of all prisoners, the winning over of new recruits among the prison population.
4. Go after financial supporters of terrorism, not the terrorists themselves. It’s only with narcoterrorism that this strategy fails, since the drug market doesn’t respond to simple supply-demand forces.
5. Terrorists are imitators, not innovators. They often wait until some other group makes the first move. Most of them do this because they are sorely trying to imitate military strategy, others do it because of standardized paramilitary training or textbook lessons in guerrilla tactics, and still others do it to throw off suspicion from themselves..
6. The Stockholm Syndrome works in the favor of anti-terrorist forces. The longer the hostages stay alive, the less likelihood harm will come to them. With this syndrome, the hostages come to think of their captors as protecting them from the police and soon start to identify with their captors. The captors themselves start to develop a parent/child relationship with their hostages. Other syndromes include the Penelope Syndrome, where women find violent criminals sexually attractive.
7. In assessing the threat of terrorism, it’s important to concentrate on counting the number of incidents, not the number of victims or the value of harm. The only true comparison is the number of attacks since terrorists often have no idea themselves about how many victims will be killed by their actions. Nationalist groups tend to seek a high number of fatalities while revolutionary groups tend to seek fewer deaths and more wounds or injuries. Splinter or spin-off groups seem more interested in death counts and fatalities. The point is that no matter how many victims are targeted, the group is only a threat via its number of attacks as a percent of total activity.
8. Do count the number of victims saved by any preventive action. If you manage through some leverage to get the terrorist leader to stop things with a cease-fire agreement, regardless of whether further negotiation follows or not, it will help your agency if you have calculated how many lives you’ve saved, and can report this information to policymakers. Everyone wins by a cease-fire – the terrorist leaders look good, your leaders look good too. After the cease-fire, it’s important to also measure the resumed level of violence and compare to pre-cease-fire levels.
9. Giving into terrorists’ demands for political change only changes the pattern of violence, not violence itself. Economic and political reforms aimed at helping a certain group and resolving its grievances will win over some supporters among the general population, but in the long-run, will create new problems and a new set of grievances over the precise implementation of policy and the degree of power sharing. A much better strategy is to initiate economic and political reforms for all nation. Economic development solutions have worked in Ireland, Uruguay andItaly.
10. Reduction of recruits, supplies and support. You have to reduce the number of active trainee members of the terrorist organization. Capture and imprisonment works (it has helped to keep Spain fairly terrorism-free), as well as preemptive strikes against training camps. The number of terrorists captured or killed should be counted, and this can be put as the denominator in a fraction with the number of government security forces killed in the numerator. You’ve also got to keep weapons, ammo and supplies out of hands of terrorists by destruction of their “stash” houses. Unfortunately, many religious terrorist groups operate under the cover of religion and blowing up religious buildings has a strong negative effect.
11. Terrorism does not respond to coalition-based sanctions which are intended to express the international community’s disregard for them. Terrorist actually want their enemies to wage a war on terrorism because this gives them some pseudo-legitimacy that they are soldiers-at war. If they are broken up from receiving any psychological rewards or sympathy from their social support groups, this strategy might work.
12. Sharing of information and intelligence by counter-terrorism agents is essential. But there’s always a threat, thata secret source might be “burnt out” during such“sharing”.
13. Terrorist groups with a cell structure are most likely to thwart human intelligence since the purpose of the cell structure is to prevent any members from knowing who is the immediate leader. This may or may not be true with some groups (like the IRA) which mix family with business, depending upon levels of fidelity. The best approach for such groups may electronic surveillance. However, groups with military or paramilitary organization might be easier to infiltrate or penetrate.
In November, 2011 more than a dozen spies working for the CIA in Iran and Lebanon have been caught and the U. S. government fears they will be or have been executed. The spies were paid informants recruited by the CIA for two distinct espionage rings targeting Iran and the Beirut-based Hezbollah organization.
In Beirut, two Hezbollah double agents pretended to go to work for the CIA. Hezbollah then learned of the Beirut Pizza Hut restaurant where multiple CIA officers were meeting with several agents, according to the four current and former officials briefed on the case. The CIA used the code word "PIZZA" when discussing where to meet with the agents. From there, Hezbollah's internal security arm identified at least a dozen informants, and the identities of several CIA case officers.
CIA officers ignored the rule that the operation could be compromised by using the same location for meetings with multiple assets. Idiots who loved free pizza paid by the U. S. government too much.
Use special influence methods against terrorists
Torture is a category of methods of interrogation designed to shock, hurt and humiliate the object and get information or to make him do something (if used for blackmail). Points to remember:
–ongoing torture decreases pain sensitivity
–people with strong will power take torture as a test
–resistance to torture is often a form of hysterics after arrest
–the object could take himself as a martyr if you torture him too much
–torture could damage object’s psyche and you won’t be able to work with him (that’s why we keep terrorists in Guantanamo Bay without trial – we turn them into idiots)
–people usually trust "after torture information" more than voluntary confessions
–there are different types of torture and professionals often combine them
Techniques of psychological torture include:
– fake execution
– complete isolation ("wall therapy")
– daylight deprivation
– forcible narcotics addiction. Here you can use depressants, stimulants, opiates or hallucinogens : depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs
with effects of euphoria, tension reduction,, muscle relaxation, drowsiness; stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine (crystal meth), with effects of fast
euphoria, exhilaration, high physical and mental energy, reduced appetite, perceptions of power, and sociability; hallucinogens with effects of euphoria, hallucinations, distorted perceptions and sensations
–making the object observe others being tortured (such as family members)
–abuse of object’s national, religious feelings or political views)
The effects of psychological torture are: anxiety, depression, fear, psychosis, difficulty concentrating, communication disabilities, insomnia, impaired memory, headaches, hallucinations, sexual disturbances, destruction of self-image, inability to socialize
Techniques of physical torture include:
–food, water, sleep deprivation
–damage to vital body organs (brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, private parts) plus electric shock. The brain is particularly dependent on a continuous and stable supply of oxygen and glucose.
–water cure ( the torturer pours water down the throat of the subject to inflict the terror of drowning. In another variation, the subject is tied or held don in a chair, his face is covered with a cloth or plastic sheet, and water is poured slowly or quickly over his face to encourage him to talk
The effects of physical torture are: extreme (unbearable) pain, hypertension, fatigue, cardiopulmonary and other disorders, brain atrophy.
What Makes a Riot?
First we must understand how a riot develops in the first place. A riot is a crowd that takes aggressive and illegal actions as a reaction to fear or anger. The crowd takes on a mob mindset and does things they normally would not do because the crowd makes them anonymous. Being anonymous and seeing the actions of the others makes them feel like they can damage, burn or harm whatever and whomever they want.
The fuel for a riot builds up over time. In many situations, this can take years or even decades of racial prejudice, unfair treatment or abuse. When people have no effective way of dealing with these issues or bettering their situation, an undercurrent of anger and frustration grows stronger and stronger.
Once the situation is at a breaking point, almost anything can set it off. An incident that angers one group can immediately turn them against another group of people. Sometimes an actual incident isn’t even required and it may just a rumor that spread through a group to turn anger into a violent outburst.
Sports teams losing or winning a major game can sometimes cause riots. In this case, the fuel doesn’t build up for a long time and it’s mainly the result of alcohol. The drunkenness of the crowd contributes heavily to these riots and is simply sparked by the excitement or disappointment.
Riot Control Tactics
The tactics used to control riots in the past were very simple. The success was based on the fact that the police were almost always better armed than the rioters. The tactics they used basically consisted of forming a line and charging into the crowd. The police today are even better armed, but the techniques have advanced significantly and usually prevent the injuries that we have seen in the past.
When a riot is in full swing, police will arrange themselves in a square formation with a command team at the center. The command team is protected on all four sides by echelons of troops deployed in groups of 10 or 12 officers. There is also an arrest team at the center of the square.
This riot control unit is very mobile and can adapt quickly to changes in the mod or situation. If a threat suddenly appears in a different direction, the echelon facing that direction is designated the front of the unit. The entire team can change direction without a lot of reorganizing. The echelons can also cover each other when the team moves to take new positions. If a section is under attack, the whole team does not move together. One echelon moves while the others provide covering fire or an actual physical screen using riot shields. Then another echelon moves up into position.
This layout is not meant to be an impenetrable wall of police. Actually, the riot team leaves an escape route to let rioters run past. The officers can take a passive stance by spreading out and leaving a large opening between each officer. The crowd can then easily filter through them. If an overly violent person or group moves toward the officers, they can immediately close the gaps and form a tight line.
As the officers move forward into a crowd, they push at anyone who doesn’t respond to verbal requests to move away by. If they still refuse to move, the unit continues moving forward, but the front line opens up and passes around the protesters. Once the specific people are inside the square, the unit stops and the arrest team processes the rioters. The front line closes and the unit can continue moving.
Riot Control Technology
When crowd control units get ready to engage, the first thing required is protective gear. The full outfit typically consists of: helmet with face shield. body armor, large body shield.
The body shield and face shield are typically made of a material called Lexan. If thick enough, it can be bullet proof. But in this application, it basically protects against thrown objects or attacks with sticks and similar weapons.
The most basic offensive weapon a riot control officer has is a baton. These are usually between 24 and 42 inches long and are made of various materials. Expandable batons or expanding batons are also used because of their size when closed. They can fit into holsters and worn on the belt similar to handcuffs. There are also batons that are fashioned after stun guns and referrer to as stun batons. Most crowd control units use some type of baton instead of rifles because the presence of guns are likely to escalate any situation. If someone manages to take a gun away from an officer, the results could be disastrous.
If guns are being used, the police typically employ a variety of non-lethal rounds. Although these are not generally considered fatal rounds, anything fired from a gun has the potential to be deadly. But, they are trained to use these weapons in ways that minimize the risk of death or serious injury.
These rounds are commonly fired from a 40mm single shot or multi-round gun. They are similar to military grenade launchers.
Riot Control Rounds
Some of these non-lethal rounds include:
1)Blunt-force rounds – These rounds cause pain when they strike, but they don’t penetrate the skin. They are often fired at the ground so the round skips off the pavement and strikes the rioters in the legs. Each round is filled with small discs. When officers skip the rounds off the ground in front of the crowd, they separate and tend to hit multiple rioters. It can cause a lot of pain, but has a lesser chance of doing damage as compared to a solid piece of the material. The objective is to cause enough pain to make the rioter comply with the officers.
2)Bean Bag Round – These are square-shaped bean bags that have a long-range but they tend to be inaccurate. There are teardrop-shaped bean bag rounds with a tail that are geared toward accuracy.
3) Sponge Round – Bullet-shaped round with a sponge tip. They are all-purpose with average range and accuracy.
4) Stinger rounds – A Stinger round is loaded with small, rubber pellets that disperse on impact.
5) Pepper ball rounds – A paint ball gun is slightly modified to fire pepper spray pellets instead of paint balls. When these strike someone, the severe burning sensation in the eyes and nose will incapacitate most people without doing permanent harm. When children or elderly people might be present in a crowd, the police can use water pellets instead. It still stings to get hit with water pellets and sometimes people are afraid they have actually been hit with pepper spray, so the crowd disperses.
6) Aerosol grenades – These are metal canisters that are activated and thrown like regular grenades. They spray tear gas or pepper spray gas over a wide area. Officers rarely throw these directly into a crowd since it can increase panic. They typically use the gas to create a type of barricade to direct the crowd’s movements in a certain direction. A gas grenade might be thrown into the crowd if a particular group is extremely violent or attacking a single victim.
7) Ferret rounds – Ferret rounds are made to penetrate windows or wooden barricades, where they can then deposit the gas. These are used to flush people out of barricades and other standoff situations.
8) Dye rounds – Sponge rounds, ferret rounds and pepperball rounds can all be filled with marker dye. These are used to mark certain people in a crowd so that other officers can identify them or so that they can be caught later if they leave the scene. In a riot, the leaders are often tagged with marker-dye rounds so the arrest team can pick them up later.
9) Gas rounds – These rounds are loaded with a gas that causes severe irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and even causes contact skin burns in some cases. These most commonly contain pepper spray or tear gas. Officers don’t like to use gas rounds, because they know they’re going to experience some of the effects of the gas themselves. Still, they wear gas masks and goggles to protect themselves in case the need arises.
Crowd Control Prevention
Today’s riot control units are not usually called riot squads anymore; they are crowd-management units. Rather than trying to beat the rioters in battle, the police just try to calm them down and get them to go home. The use even non-lethal force is a last resort.
The first step in crowd management is making sure a riot doesn’t happen in the first place. Although riots can erupt unexpectedly, they are frequently tied to a planned protest or organized demonstration. When the police think a situation could potentially get out of control, they contact the organizers of the protest ahead of time. They set up ground rules that the protesters are to follow and they designate a specific area for the event to take place. The police assign specially trained officers to monitor the event and to ensure that everyone stays safe. The police will only take action if the ground rules are broken.
If the officers disagree with the opinions of the protesters, they are still trained to maintain an unbiased attitude. The officers try not to look at the protesters as enemies. Instead, they recognize that the rioters are part of the same community that the police are entrusted to protect and serve. There is fine balancing act.
Even though police are trained to be polite, they are careful to not give off an impression of subservience. They have to be seen as being in charge and in control at all times, even while they stay passive and allow the crowd to operate within the ground rules set out ahead of time. Occasionally these preventative measures don’t work and a riot breaks out despite police efforts to keep everyone peaceful.
Crowd Control Conflict
If a crowd gets disorderly and starts taking violent action, the police will switch to a more aggressive approach. They understand that most riots are lead by a few individuals who feel strongly or have something to gain from a violent confrontation. The majority of the people are present either because something exciting is going on or they are simply bystanders that get caught up in the mob mentality. The likelihood of arrest or confrontation with police usually prompt them to escape and go home.
The first step is simple intimidation. Riot police stand in strict formations and act with military precision. Once they form the lines of barriers, they tap their batons on their shields or stomp their feet in unison. The result can be quite intimidating to unarmed civilians. It can appear that the group is getting ready to attack. In reality, this display is meant to scare off as many of the rioters as possible without the officers ever getting near them.
Police do not try to arrest every person in the riot. Their first targets are those who are leading the riot because the crowd will often disperse without their leaders encouraging them. Everyone seen breaking a law are also targeted for arrest, especially if they injure someone.
When the officers are actually in conflict with the rioters, the objective is still to disperse the crowd. A combination of advancing lines of officers and the use of gas is used to move the crowd in a particular direction. The crowd is never pinned down and always given an escape route. The main purpose of the crowd management team is to get the people to disperse.
5 ways technology shaped the London riots
1. Rioters used BlackBerry Messenger for subversive communication
London authorities say that social media played a key role in helping rioters organize and spread disorder. A sample tweet: "Everyone up and roll to Tottenham f*** the 50 [police]. I hope 1 dead tonight. " BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) may have played the most integral role, with rioters using the free instant-messaging service as a secure communication network. "It appears to have acted as their private, encrypted social network, " says Christopher Williams in Britain's Telegraph. On Tuesday, the U. K. 's intellectual-property minister, David Lammy, called for a suspension of the service in an effort to thwart rioters' communication.
2. But BlackBerry Messenger may also help identify rioters
While BlackBerry maker Research in Motion (RIM) got quiet when asked to suspend its BBM service, the company says it will "assist the authorities" in trying to identify rioters who used BBM to spread the violence. BBM is, in many cases, less traceable than texting or tweeting, as users are connected through BBM PINs, not usernames or phone numbers. Shortly after RIM agreed to help authorities, the company's blog was hacked in response by an anonymous group referred to as "TeaMpOisoN. "
3. Tumblr is fingering rioters, too
On the Tumblr site "Catch a Looter, " Britons posted pictures of looters in action, with the intent of identifying and shaming them. However, the site was live for just a day before the webmaster started referring to people to the establishment organization Crimestoppers instead, saying that site was better equipped to handle submissions.
4. Samaritans are organizing through social media
The Twitter account @riotcleanup was launched to get stricken neighborhoods back in order. It already has more than 85, 000 followers and has spurred hundreds, if not thousands, of people to take action. "It has been an incredible response, " says Dan Thompson, one of the men who helped organize the efforts. "I thought we might get a few people out. But we saw hundreds of people show up with brooms. " A similar page on Facebook has nearly 20, 000 supporters.
5. But the U. K. government may still crack down
On Thursday, Prime Minister David Cameron said he was considering temporarily blocking messaging services and social-networking sites. When people use social media for violent purposes, "we need to stop them, " Cameron says. I'm not so sure, says New York University professor Ramesh Srinivasan, as quoted in The Washington Post. "Cutting off or hacking a communication technology... fails to address the deep-rooted dissatisfaction that drove people to take to the streets" in the first place.
Attack on Capitol, January 6, 2021
On the afternoon of Wednesday, January 6, 2021, the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. was violently attacked by a mob of supporters of President Donald Trump in what was widely characterized as an insurrection. The mob sought to overturn his defeat in the 2020 presidential election by disrupting the joint session of Congress assembled to count electoral votes that would formalize President-elect Joe Biden's victory. The Capitol Complex was locked down during the riot, and lawmakers and staff were evacuated from the building while rioters occupied and vandalized the building for several hours. Five people died either shortly before, during, or shortly after the event: one was shot by Capitol Police, one died of a drug overdose, and three succumbed to natural causes. Many people were injured, including 138 police officers. Four officers who responded to the riot died by suicide within seven months.
Called to action by Trump, thousands of his supporters gathered in Washington, D. C., on January 5 and 6 in support of his false claim that the 2020 election had been "stolen by emboldened radical-left Democrats", and to demand that Vice President Mike Pence and Congress reject Biden's victory. Starting at noon on January 6, at a "Save America" rally on the Ellipse, Trump repeated false claims of election irregularities and said, "If you don't fight like hell, you're not going to have a country anymore. " During and after his speech, thousands of attendees walked to the Capitol, and hundreds breached police perimeters, as Congress was beginning the electoral vote count. Many in the crowd broke into the building, occupying, vandalizing, and looting it for several houрс. They assaulted Capitol Police officers and reporters and attempted to locate lawmakers to capture and harm. Some rioters chanted "Hang Mike Pence", after Pence's rejection of false claims by Trump and others that the vice president could overturn the election results. Some vandalized and looted the offices of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D–CA), as well as those of other members of Congress.
With building security breached, Capitol Police evacuated the Senate and House of Representatives chambers. Several buildings in the Capitol Complex were evacuated, and all were locked down. Rioters occupied and ransacked the empty Senate chamber while federal law enforcement officers drew handguns to defend the evacuated House floor. Pipe bombs were found at the offices of the Democratic National Committee and the Republican National Committee, and Molotov cocktails were discovered in a vehicle near the Capitol. Trump resisted sending the D. C. National Guard to quell the mob.
At 4:17 p. m. in a Twitter video, Trump reasserted that the election was "fraudulent", but told his supporters to "go home in peace". The Capitol was cleared of rioters by mid-evening, and the counting of the electoral votes resumed and was completed in the early morning hours of January 7. Pence declared President-elect Biden and Vice-President-elect Kamala Harris victors, and affirmed that they would assume office on January 20. Pressured by his administration, the threat of removal, and numerous resignations, Trump later committed to an orderly transition of power in a televised statement. The assault on the Capitol generated substantial global attention and was widely condemned by political leaders and organizations both in the United States and internationally. Mitch McConnell (R–KY), then the Senate Majority Leader, called it a "failed insurrection" and said the Senate "will not bow to lawlessness or intimidation". Several social media and technology companies suspended or banned Trump's accounts from their platforms.
A week after the riot, the House of Representatives impeached Trump for incitement of insurrection, making him the only U. S. president to have been impeached twice. The House passed a bill to create a bipartisan independent commission modeled after the 9/11 Commission to investigate the attack, but it was blocked by Republicans in the Senate. Pelosi then proposed, and the House approved, a House select committee to investigate the attack. Christopher Wray, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), later characterized the incident as domestic terrorism. This opinion was later shared by President Biden, who described the rioters as "terrorists" aimed at "overturning the will of the American people". Opinion polls showed that a large majority of Americans disapproved of the attack on the Capitol and of Trump's actions leading up to and following it, although many Republicans supported the attack or at least did not blame Trump for it.
More than 500 people have been charged with federal crimes relating to the attack. Dozens of people present in Washington, D. C., on the day, including some who took part in the riot, were later found to be listed in the FBI's Terrorist Screening Database, most as suspected white supremacists. Members of anti-government groups, including the paramilitary Oath Keepers, neo-fascist Proud Boys, and far-right militia Three Percenters, were charged with conspiracy for allegedly staging planned missions at the Capitol.
PART 2 War.
Politicians love war because:
a) Successful military engagement enhances presidential popularity. All five Presidents who have run for re-election during a war have won.
b) A quick war improves the electoral fortunes of the president’s political party.
c) War is good business, at least if you win, and at least if it does not drag on too long. It stimulates demand for a variety of manufactured goods and services (even if they are all destined to go down the drain) and is a powerful stimulus to all fields of scientific endeavor.
d) War provides opportunities to direct lucrative contracts to companies and individuals who helped get the President elected, or who can help in the future; and to the constituents of select Senators and Congressmen for the same reasons.
e) War usually pleases the Joint Chiefs (and their full support is important politically).
f) War keeps down the unemployment figures.
g) War is just one detail in a vast ongoing game of international strategy for domination; it is as much a financial operation as anything else.
h) War unifies the country, and keeps the public’s attention away from issues that might be controversial.
i) War provides a rationale for the implementation of tighter legislation and the removal of certain freedoms that would never be tolerated in peacetime America.
At the same time, war is limited by political decisions and by public opinion. Initially the use of US forces spurs a "rally around the flag" effect that lifts the President’s popularity and builds up support for the troops. But the American people are casualty averse and the positive effect lasts only until the number of casualties and the length of the engagement begin to wear on the public. Continued military action will then have a deleterious effect on presidential approval ratings as the war becomes increasingly unpopular.
In the long run, the destruction of such vast quantities of resources, and the diversion of so much of the nation’s productive capacity away from actual goods and services for the real economy, are obviously immensely deleterious. Eventually, these downside effects will begin to dawn on even the best-manipulated electorate.
1. Train your muscles to snap to the standard position for shooting, to squeeze the trigger straight back with the ball of your finger to avoid jerking the gun sideways.
Train yourself to shoot while you stand, sit, lie, walk, run, jump, fall down; shoot at voices, shoot in a dark room, different weather and distance, day and night; shoot one object and a group; use one gun, two guns, gun and submachine gun (some doctrines train a sniper to breathe deeply before shooting, then hold their lungs empty while he lines up and takes his shot; other go further, teaching a sniper to shoot between heartbeats to minimize barrel motion)
2. Camouflage yourself ten times before you make a single shot. Position yourself in a building (no rooftops or churches! ), which offers a long-range fields of fire and all-round observation. Don’t stay in places with heavy traffic! Use unusual angles of approach and frequent slow movement to prevent accurate counter-attacks.
3. Move slowly to prevent accurate counter-attack, don’t be a mark yourself
4. Kill officers and military leaders first (Attention, officers: don’t walk in front of your soldiers! )
5. Use suppressive fire to cover a retreat
6. Use rapid fire when the squad attempts a rescue
7. Shoot helicopters, turbine disks of parked jet fighters, missile guidance packages, tubes or wave guides of radar sets
8. At distances over 300 m attempt body shots, aiming at the chest; at lesser distances attempt head shots (the most effective range is 300 to 600 meters). Police snipers who generally engage at much shorter distances may attempt head shots to ensure the kill (in instant-death hostage situations they shoot for the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls voluntary movement that lies at the base of the skull).
9. Shoot from flanks and rear
10. Never approach the body until you shoot it several times
11. Careful: the object could be wearing a bulletproof vest
12. It’s important to get to the place, but it’s more important to get out alive
13. Remember, in hot weather bullets travel higher, in cold — lower; a silencer reduces the maximum effective range of the weapon. Wind poses the biggest problem — the stronger the wind, the more difficult it is to hold the rifle steady and gauge how it will affect the bullet’s trajectory. (You must be able to classify the wind and the best method is to use the clock system. With you at the center of the clock and the target at 12 o’clock, the wind is assigned into three values: full, half and no value. Full value means that the force of the wind will have a full effect on the flight of the bullet, and these winds come from 3 and 9 o’clock. Half value means that a wind at the same speed, but from 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 o’clock, will move the bullet only half as much as a full-value wind. No value means that a wind from 6 or 12 o’clock will have little or no effect on the flight of the bullet). Shooting uphill or downhill can require more adjustment due to the effects of gravity. For moving targets, the point of aim is in front of the target ( it’s called "Leading" the target, where the amount of lead depends on the speed and angle of the target’s movement. For this technique, holding over is the preferred method. Anticipating the behavior of the target is necessary to accurately place the shot).
14. NEVER fire from the edge of a wood line – you should fire from a position inside the wood line (in the shade of shadows).
15. DO NOT cause overhead movement of trees, bushes or tall grasses by rubbing against them; move very slowly.
16. Do not use trails, roads or footpaths, avoid built-up and populated areas and areas of heavy enemy guerrilla activity.
17.. If you work in terrain without any natural support, use your rucksack, sandbag, a forked stick, or you may build a field-expedient bipod or tripod. The most accurate position though is prone, with a sandbag supporting the stock, and the stock’s cheek-piece against the cheek.
18. The sniper has a tendency to watch the target instead of his aiming point.
1. Active: direct observation by posts equipped with laser protective glasses and night vision devices; patrolling with military working dogs; calculating the trajectory; bullet triangulation; using decoys to lure a sniper; using another sniper; UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles); directing artillery or mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke-screens; emplacing tripwire-operated munitions, mines, or other booby-traps near suspected sniper positions( you can improvise booby-traps by connecting trip-wires to fragmentation hand grenades, smoke grenades or flares. Even though these may not kill the sniper, they will reveal his location. Booby –traps devices should be placed close to likely sniper hides or along the probable routes used into and out of the sniper’s work area). If the squad is pinned down by sniper fire and still taking casualties, the order may be given to rush the sniper’s position. If the sniper is too far for a direct rush, a "rush to cover" can also be used. The squad may take casualties, but with many moving targets and a slow-firing rifle, the losses are usually small compared to holding position and being slowly picked off. If the sniper’s position is known, but direct retaliation is not possible, a pair of squads can move through concealment (cover) and drive the nipper toward the group containing the targets. This decreases the chances that the sniper will find a stealthy, quick escape route.
2. Passive: limited exposure of the personnel (use concealed routes, avoid plazas and intersections, stay away from doorways and windows, move along the side of the street and not down the center, move in the shadows, move dispersed, avoid lighted areas at night, move quickly across open areas, avoid wearing obvious badges of rank, adapt screens on windows, use armored vehicles); use Kevlar helmet and bulletproof vest.
1. Use rapid dominance: technology + speed + information domination.
2. Use artillery preparation. It is the artillery fire delivered before an attack to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy’s defense and to disrupt communications and disorganize the enemy’s defense.
3. Use deception especially before the first strike (air strike + artillery). Deception plays a key part in offensive operations and has two objectives: the first objective is to weaken the local defense by drawing reserves to another part of the battlefield. This may be done by making a small force seem larger than it is. The second objective is to conceal the avenue of approach and timing of the main attack.
4. Imitate assault to make the enemy expose his positions and fire system.
5. Mines, mines, mines. There are four types of minefield : the tactical large-area minefield, usually laid by engineers, for tactical use on the battlefield(i. e. to canalize the enemy into killing areas); the protective minefield, the sort that you will plant in front of your position for defensive purposes; the nuisance minefield, designed to hamper and disrupt enemy movement ; and the dummy minefield – a wired off area suitably marked can be as effective as the real thing.
6. Don’t touch anything in the places the enemy just left – check for mines first. A minefield is a mortal surprise and you have to know how to breach and cross it: remove your helmet, rucksack, watch, belt, and anything else that may hinder movement or fall off, leave your rifle and equipment with another soldier in the team, get a wooden stick about 30 cm (12 in) long for a probe and sharpen one of the ends (do not use a metal probe), place the unsharpened end of the probe in the palm of one hand with your fingers extended and your thumb holding the probe, and probe every 5 cm (2 in) across a 1-meter area in front of you and push the probe gently into the ground at an angle less than 45 degrees, kneel (or lie down) and feel upward and forward with your free hand to find tripwires and pressure prongs before starting to probe, put enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground and if the probe does not go into the ground, pick or chip the dirt away with the probe and remove it by hand, stop probing when a solid object is touched, remove enough dirt from around the object to find out what it is. If you found a mine, remove enough dirt around it to see what type of mine it is, mark it and report its exact location to your leader. Once a footpath has been probed and the mines marked, a security team should cross the minefield to secure the far side. After the far side is secure, the rest of the unit should cross.
7. Visual indicators. Pay attention to the following indicators : trip wires, signs of road repair (new fill or paving, road patches, ditching), dead animals, damaged vehicles, tracks that stop unexplainably, wires leading away from the side of the road (they may be firing wires that are partially buried), mounds of dirt, change of plants color,, pieces of wood or othr debris on a road. Remember, mined areas, like other obstacles are often covered by fire. Keep also in mind, that local civilians try to avoid certain (mined) areas.
8. Use phony minefields to simulate live minefields. For example, disturb the ground so that it appears that mines have been emplaced and mark boundaries with appropriate warnings.
9. Make a real minefield appear phony, or camouflage it. For example, once a real minefield is settled, a wheel or a specially made circular wooden tank track marker can be run through the field, leaving track or tire marks to lure the enemy onto live mines. Antipersonnel mines should not be sown in such a field until the track marks have been laid. Another method is to leave gaps in the mechanically laid field, run vehicles through the gaps, and then close them with hand-laid mines without disturbing the track marks.
10. Use feint attack to draw defensive action towards the point under assault (it’s usually used as a diversion and to force the enemy to concentrate more manpower in a given area so that the opposing force in another area is weaker).
11. Issue false orders over the radio, imitate a tanks’, fighters’ and bombers’ assault while preparing to retreat.
12. Use dummy units and installations, phony radio traffic, movement and suppressive fires in other areas timed to coincide with the real attack
13. Use force multiplication by using decoy vehicles and use small convoys to generate dust clouds. Move trucks into and out of the area giving it the appearance of being a storage facility or logistic base.
14. Simulate damage to induce the enemy to leave important targets alone. For example, ragged patterns can be painted on the walls and roof of a building with tar and coal dust, and covers placed over them.
15. Stack debris nearby and wire any unused portions for demolition. During an attack, covers are removed under cover of smoke generators, debris scattered and demolitions blown. Subsequent enemy air photography will disclose a building that is too badly damaged to be used.
16. Change positions at night time only.
17. Use dispersal to relocate and spread out forces to increase their chances of survival.
18. Imitate fake ballistic missiles divisions and military headquarters to entrap enemy’s intelligence and sabotage groups.
19. Use "sack" strategy ("cutting" enemy’s army into separate groups).
20. Use strategic bombing (the massive attack on cities, industries, lines of communication and supply).
21. Simulate bombing of minor objects and attack important ones.
22. Use counter-battery fire (detecting with counter-battery radars the source of incoming artillery shells and firing back), using mobile artillery pieces or vehicles with mounted rocket launchers to fire and then move before any counter-battery fire can land on the original position.
23. Use airborne operations, when helicopters transport troops into the battle and provide fire support at battle sites simultaneously with artillery fire, keeping enemy off guard.
24. Helicopters are extremely important as they can be sent everywhere: to kill tanks and other helicopters, for aerial mine laying, for electronic warfare, for naval operations (anti-submarine and anti-ship patrols), to correct artillery and tactical fighters fire, for reconnaissance, command, control and communications, to insert special forces, to evacuate casualties (this helps maintain the morale of the troops), to carry supplies (missile systems, ammunition, fuel food, to escort convoys, for navigational help, to destroy battlefield radars, communications and radio relay systems, to seal gaps and protect flanks, for rear-area security, counter — penetration, rapid reinforcement of troops under pressure, raids and assaults behind enemy lines, air assault in offensive and defensive operations, to strengthen anti-tank defenses by inserting infantry anti-tank teams. Helicopters offer a strong tactical surprise and take a ground conflict into the third dimension, making the enemy’s ground maneuvers impossible.
25. When fighting an insurgency: once you get intelligence, you have to bomb the area to "soften" insurgents and then send helicopters with special forces teams right away. Helicopters suppress and cut-off by fire insurgents trying to escape and the teams clear-up the remains. Transport helicopters must bring in troops rapidly from different bases and build-up numerically superior force which insurgents cannot match.
26. Use joint bombers/fighters flights to bomb transportation, supply, bridges, railroads, highways, antiaircraft and radar sites. To gain surprise, attack with the sun behind you. Remember, enemy will try to saturate the airspace through which the aircraft will fly with fire.
27. Watch out for the tank ambushes!
Storming the City
1. Effective intelligence is 90% of success. Use sources like agents among the enemy’s high ranking officers, prisoners of war, captured documents and maps, enemy’s activity, local civilians (agents). Use intelligence and sabotage groups (through them you can deliver your fake plans and maps). You must know how the enemy usually defends a built-up area and the approaches to it, critical objectives within the built-up area that provide decisive tactical advantages, tactical characteristics of the built-up area and its structure. Information about the population will assist in determining where to attack, what firepower restrictions may be imposed, and what areas within the urban complex must be avoided to minimize destruction of life-support facilities and civilian casualties.
2. Make the enemy attack you if possible, because if you attack first the victims calculation is 5:1.
3. Train your troops to storm this certain city.
4. Blockade the city completely.
5. Attack the city from different points ( flanks and rear! ) at the same time after intense artillery fire and bombing (that’s a very strong psychological blow. Its intensity is determined by the strength of defensive forces, the type of building construction, and the density of fires required to suppress observation and fires. You must destroy command posts, heavy weapons positions, communications, troop emplacements, tall structures that permit observation. Then engineers move forward under the cover of smoke and high explosives to neutralize barriers and breach minefields on routes into the city). Field artillery, attack helicopters and offense air support must disrupt the enemy command and control network and destroy his support units ( field artillery mostly creates breaches in buildings, walls and barricades. Mortars cover avenues of enemy troop movements, such as street intersections and alleys; mortars firing positions are placed behind walls or inside buildings close to their targets). A hasty attack is conducted when the enemy has not established strong defensive positions and attacking forces can exploit maneuver to overwhelm the defense – locate a weak spot or gap in enemy defenses, fix forward enemy elements, rapidly move through or around the gap or weak spot to be exploited. A deliberate attack is necessary when enemy defenses are extremely prepared, when the urban obstacle is extremely large or severely congested., or when the advantage of surprise has been lost. It’s divided into three basic phases: isolation from reinforcement and resupply by securing dominating terrain and utilizing direct and indirect fires; assault to rupture the defenses and secure a foothold on the perimeter of the built-up area from which attacks to clear the area may be launched (an envelopment, assaulting defensive weaknesses on the flanks or rear of the built-up area, is preferred, however, a penetration may be required; and clearance, a systematic building-by-building, block-by-block advance through the entire area..
6. Target vital bridges, transportation facilities that are required to sustain future combat operations, strategic industrial or vital communications facilities. Attacks against built-up areas will be avoided when the area is not required to support future operations, bypassing is tactically feasible, the built-up area has been declared an "open city" to preclude civilian casualties or to preserve cultural or historical facilities, sufficient combat forces are not available to seize and clear the built-up area.
7. Don’t use tanks on narrow streets! Tanks can be decisive in city fighting, with the ability to demolish walls and fire medium and heavy machine guns in several directions simultaneously. However, tanks are especially vulnerable in urban combat. It’s much easier for enemy infantry to sneak behind a tank or fire at its sides, where it is vulnerable. In addition, firing down from multi-story buildings allows shots at the soft upper turret armor and even basic weapons like Molotov cocktails, if aimed at the engine air intakes, can disable a tank.
8. Use 3 groups at each point.
1st. A "dead" group plus tanks moves fast to the center, again, after intense artillery fire and bombing (otherwise you’ll have heavy casualties).
2nd. The group follows the first one and inside the city goes like a "fan" in all directions enveloping the defender’s flanks and rear.
3rd. The group is on reserve in case the enemy counterattacks.
The first phase of the attack should be conducted when visibility is poor. Troops can exploit poor visibility to cross open areas, gain access to rooftops, infiltrate enemy areas and gain a foothold. If the attack must be made when visibility is good, units should consider using smoke to conceal movement. The formation used in attack depends on the width and depth of the zone to be cleared, the character of the area, anticipated enemy resistance, and the formation adopted by the next higher command. Lead companies may have engineers attached for immediate support. Tasks given to engineers may include preparing and using explosives to breach walls and obstacles, finding and exploding mines in place or helping remove them, clearing barricades and rubble, cratering roads.
9. Use paratroopers to capture important objects (airport, government buildings, military headquarters, port, railway station).
10. Capture high buildings and place machine gunners and snipers on upper floors (buildings provide excellent sniping posts for defenders, too).
11. Get all important cross-roads to maneuver troops and tanks.
12. Block highways!
13. Watch out – there are mines everywhere (alleys and rubble-filled streets are ideal for planting booby traps). Be alert for booby traps in doors, windows, halls, stairs, and concealed in furniture.
14. Watch underground communications – the enemy could stay in subway tunnels, sewage system.
15. Don’t waste time storming the buildings – blow up the walls and move forward.
16. Soldiers in an urban environment are faced with ground direct fire danger in three dimensions — not just all-round fire but also from above (multi-story buildings) and from below (sewers and subways) and that’s why, here, the most survivable systems, like tanks, are at great risk. Also, there are increased casualties because of shattered glass, falling debris, rubble, ricochets, urban fires and falls from heights. Stress-related casualties and non-battle injuries resulting from illnesses or environmental hazards, such as contaminated water, toxic industrial materials also increase the number of casualties.
17. In the streets use artillery and mortars to "soften" the enemy up before assault.
Maximum damage, minimum loss.
Special military operations have special requirements:
1. Detailed planning and coordination that allow the special unit to discern and exploit the enemy’s weakness while avoiding its strength.
2. Decentralized execution, individual and unit initiative.
3. Surprise, achieved through the units ability to move by uncommon means, along unexpected routes, over rough terrain, during poor weather and reduced
visibility. Survivability, achieved by rapid mission accomplishment and a prompt departure from the objective area.
4. Mobility, speed, and violence of execution (the speed at which events take place confuses and deceives the enemy as to the intent of the unit, and
forces the enemy to react rather than to take the initiative).
5. Shock effect, which is a psychological advantage achieved by the combining of speed and violence. The special unit strives to apply its full combat
power at he decisive time and place, and at the point of the greatest enemy weakness.
6. Multiple methods of insertion and attack, trying not to repeat operations thus decreasing the chance the enemy will detect a pattern. Deception, achieved by feints, false insertions, electronic countermeasures, and dummy transmissions.
7. Audacity, achieved by a willingness to accept a risk.
Any special team member has to have experience in sniping, underwater swimming, conducting high-altitude, low-opening parachute operations, demolition, using all kinds of weapons, including man-portable air-defense system weapons. And there are some limitations, like limited capability against armored or motorized units in open terrain and no casualty evacuation capability.
Use special forces for:
a) establishing a credible American presence in any part of the world
b) conducting limited combat operations under conditions of chemical, nuclear
or biological contamination
c) surveillance and intelligence gathering using recruited agents too (local citizens who support your war or just work for money). To get to the area you have to use infiltration, the movement into the territory occupied by enemy troops, the contact is avoided.
d) raids on the enemy’s defense system
Raids are normally conducted in the following phases: the team inserts or infiltrates into the objective area; the objective area is sealed off from outside support or reinforcement, to include the enemy air threat; any enemy force at or near the objective is overcome by surprise and violent attack, using all available firepower for shock effect; the mission is accomplished quickly before any surviving enemy can recover or be reinforced; the ranger force quickly withdraws from the objective area and is extracted. (The team can land on or near the objective and seize it before the enemy can react. Thus you avoid forced marches over land carrying heavy combat loads. If there is no suitable landing area near the objective, or the enemy has a strong reaction force nearby, the team has to land unseen far from the objective. It then assembles and moves to the objective).
Depending on terrain ambushes are divided into near (less than 50 meters, in jungle or heavy woods) and far (beyond 50 meters, in open terrain).
Raids consist of clandestine insertion, brief violent combat, rapid disengagement, swift deceptive withdrawal. The raid is used mostly to destroy command posts, communication centers and supply dumps, shipyards, electrical generation facilities, water pumping stations, phone lines, oil or natural gas pipelines, radio and TV stations, mountain passes or routes in restricted terrain, capture supplies and personnel, rescue friendly forces, distract attention from other operations, steal plans and code books, rescue prisoners of war, create havoc in the enemy’s rear areas, blow railroads and bridges. By blowing bridges you block and delay the movement of personnel and supplies and by making railroads and certain routes temporary useless you change enemy’s movement on to a small number of major roads and railway lines where it is more vulnerable to attack by other forces (especially air strikes).
Stages of an ambush
You have to identify a suitable killing zone (a place where the ambush will be laid). It’s a place where enemy units are expected to pass
and which gives reasonable cover for the deployment execution and extraction phases of the ambush patrol. Ambush includes 3 main elements: surprise, coordinated fire of all weapons to isolate the killing zone and to inflict maximum damage and control (early warning of target approach, opening fire at the proper time, timely and orderly withdrawal). You can also plan a mechanical ambush, which consists of the mines set in series. Preparation. You have to deploy into the area covertly, preferably at night and establish secure and covert positions overlooking the killing zone. Then you send two or more cut off groups a short distance from the main ambushing group into similarly covert positions they have to give you early warning of approaching enemy by radio and, when the ambush is initiated, to prevent any enemy from escaping. Another group will cover the rear of the ambush position and thus give all-round defense to the ambush patrol. No smoking! Attention: you have to occupy the ambush site as late as possible as this reduces the risk of discovery. (While choosing and ambush site pay attention to natural cover and concealment for your team, routes of entry and withdrawal, good observation and fields of fire, harmless-looking terrain, few enemy escape routes, terrain that will canalize enemy into the killing zone, and natural obstacles to keep him there).
You must give a clear instruction for initiating the ambush. It should be initiated with a mass casualty producing weapon (mortars and machine guns) to produce a maximum shock effect and break the enemy’s spirit to fight back (shock effect can cover unexpected defects in ambush, like ambushing a much larger force that expected). Then, after the firefight has been won, the ambush patrol has to clear the zone by checking bodies for intelligence and taking prisoners. After that you have to leave the area as soon as possible, by a pre-determined route.
3. Disruption of the government functions: recruitment of informants; terror and murders of political leaders and federal and local government chiefs, provoking strikes and mass disobedience; publishing illegal newspapers and literature; anti-government propaganda through illegal radio stations; involving locals in the guerrilla campaign.
Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to fight a larger and
less mobile regular army. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY WRONG – they sabotage the rear! Same mistake Soviet guerrillas did during World War II, though Chechnya is an example.
Guerrilla tactics are based on intelligence, ambush, deception, sabotage, undermining an authority through long, low-intensity confrontation. A
guerrilla army may increase the cost of maintaining an occupation above what the foreign power may wish to bear. Against a local regime, the guerrillas may make governance impossible with terror strikes and sabotage, and even combination of forces to depose their local enemies in conventional battle. These tactics are useful in demoralizing an enemy, while raising the morale of the guerrillas. In many cases, a small force holds off a much larger and better equipped army for a long time, as in Russia’s Second Chechen War. Guerrilla operations include attacks on transportation routes, individual groups of police and military, installations and structures, economic enterprises and targeted civilians, politicians included. Attacking in small groups, using camouflage and captured weapons of that enemy, the guerrilla force can constantly keep pressure on its foes and diminish its numbers, while still allowing escape with relatively few casualties. The intention of such attacks is not only military but political, aiming to demoralize target populations or governments, or goading an overreaction that forces the population to take sides for or against the guerrillas. Ambushes on key transportation routes are a hallmark of guerrilla operations, causing both economic and political disruption.
Whatever the particular tactics used, the guerrillas primarily fight to preserve his forces and political support, not capture or hold specific territory as a conventional force would.
Guerrilla warfare resembles rebellion, yet it is a different concept. Guerrilla organization ranges from small, local, rebel groups of a few dozen guerrillas, to thousands of fighters, deploying from cells to regiments. In most cases, the leaders have clear political aims for the warfare they wage.
Typically, the organization has political and military wings, to allow the political leaders a plausible denial for military attacks. Guerrillas operate with a smaller logistical footprint compared to conventional formations. A primary consideration is to avoid dependence on fixed bases and depots which are comparatively easy for conventional units to locate and destroy. Mobility and speed are the keys and wherever possible, the guerrilla must live off the land, or draw support from the civilian population in which he is embedded. Financing of operations ranges from direct individual contributions (voluntary or not), and actual operation of business enterprises by insurgent operatives, to bank robberies, kidnappings and complex financial networks based on kin, ethnic and religious affiliation (such as used by Jihad organizations). Permanent and semi-permanent bases form part of the guerilla logistical structure, usually located in remote areas or in cross-border sanctuaries sheltered by friendly regimes. Guerrilla warfare is often associated with a rural setting (mujahedeen and Taliban in Afghanistan, the Contras of Nicaragua). Guerrillas however successfully operate in urban settings (as in Jerusalem, Israel or Baghdad,
Iraq). Rural guerrillas prefer to operate in regions providing plenty of cover and concealment, especially heavily forested and mountainous areas. Urban guerrillas blend into the population and are also dependent on a support base among the people.
Intelligence is very important; collaborators and sympathizers will usually provide a steady flow of information.
Public sources of information and Internet serve very well, too. Intelligence is concerned also with political factors such as occurrence of an election or the impact of the potential operation on civilian and enemy morale.
Able to choose the time and place to strike, guerrillas possess the tactical initiative. Many guerrilla strikes are not undertaken unless clear numerical superiority can be achieved in the target area. Individual suicide bomb attacks offer another pattern, involving only one individual bomber and his support team. Whatever approach is, guerrillas hold the initiative and can prolong their survival through varying the intensity of combat. This means that attacks are spread out over quite a range of time, from weeks to years. During interim periods, the guerrilla can rebuild, resupply, train, provide propaganda indoctrination, gather intelligence, infiltrate into army, police, political parties and community organizations,
Relationships with civil population are influenced by whether the guerrillas operate among a hostile or friendly population. A friendly population is of huge importance to guerrillas, providing shelter, supplies, financing, intelligence and recruits. Popular mass support in a confined local area or country however is not always strictly necessary. Guerrillas can still operate using the protection of a friendly regime, drawing supplies, weapons, intelligence, local security and diplomatic cover. The Al-Qaeda is an example of the latter type, drawing sympathizers and support primarily from the wide-ranging Arab world.
Foreign support (soldiers, weapons, sanctuary or statements of sympathy for the guerrillas can greatly increase the chances of an insurgent victory. Foreign diplomatic support may bring the guerrilla cause to international attention, putting pressure on local opponents to make concessions, or garnering sympathetic support and material assistance. Foreign sanctuaries can add heavily to guerrilla chances, furnishing weapons, supplies, materials and training bases. Such shelter can benefit from international law, particularly if the sponsoring government is successful in concealing its support and in claiming a plausible denial for attacks by operatives based on its territory. Al-Qaeda, for example, made effective use of remote territories, such as Afghanistan under the Taliban regime, to plan and execute its operations.
Terror is used by guerrillas to focus international attention on the guerrilla cause, kill opposition leaders, extort money from targets, intimidate the general population, create economic losses, and keep followers and potential defectors in line. Such tactics may backfire and cause the civil population to withdraw its support, or to back countervailing forces against the guerrillas. Such situations occurred in Israel, where suicide bombings encouraged most Israeli opinion to take a harsh stand against Palestinian attackers, including general approval of targeted killings to kill enemy cells and leaders. Civilians may be attacked or killed for alleged collaboration, or as a policy of intimidation and coercion operations are sanctioned by the guerrilla leaders if they see a political benefit. Attacks may be aimed to weaken civilian morale so that support for the guerrilla opponents decreases. The use of attacks against civilians to create atmosphere of chaos ( and thus political advantage where the atmosphere causes foreign occupiers to withdraw or offer concessions), is well established in guerrilla and national liberation struggles.
Examples of successful guerrilla warfare against a native regime include the Cuban Revolution, Chinese Civil War, Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua. Many coups and rebellions in Africa reflect guerrilla warfare, with various groups having clear political objectives and using the above mentioned tactics (Uganda, Liberia). In Asia, native or local regimes have been overthrown by guerrilla warfare (Vietnam, China, Cambodia). Unsuccessful examples include Portuguese Africa (Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau), Malaysia (then Malaya), Bolivia, Argentina and the Philippines. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, fighting for an independent homeland in the north and east of Sri Lanka, achieved significant military successes against the Sri Lankan military and the government itself for twenty years. It was even able to use these tactics effectively against the peace keeping force sent by India.
Insurgency is not simply random political violence; it is directed and focused political violence. It requires leadership to provide vision, guidance, coordination and organizational coherence. The leaders of the insurgency must make their cause known to people. They must gain popular support, and their key tasks are to break the ties between the people and the government and to establish their movement’s credibility. They must replace the government’s legitimacy with that of their own. Their education, background, family, social connections and experience shape how they think, what they want, and how they fulfill their goals. Leadership is both a function of organization and of personality. Some organizations de-emphasize individual personalities and provide mechanisms for rebundancy and replacement in decision making; these mechanisms produce collective power and do not depend on specific leaders or personalities to be effective. They are easier to penetrate but more resilient to change. Other organizations may depend on a charismatic personality to provide cohesion, motivation, and a rallying point for the movement. Leadership organized in this way can produce decisions and initiate new actions rapidly, nut it is vulnerable to disruption if key personalities are removed or co-opted.
To win, insurgency must have a program that justifies its actions and explains what is wrong with society. It must promise great improvement after the government is overthrown. Ideology guides the insurgents in offering society a goal. The insurgents often express this goal in simple terms for ease of focus. The insurgent leader can use ideology to justify the use of violence and extralegal action in challenging the current social order, and to form a framework of the program for the future. Ideology identifies those sectors of society which the insurgency targets. Ideology may suggest probable objectives and tactics. It greatly influences the insurgents’perception of his environment. The combination of the insurgents’ ideology and his perception of his environment shapes the movement’s organizational and operational methods.
The strategic objective is the insurgents’ desired end state and that is how the insurgent will use power once he has it.
Operational objectives are those which the insurgents pursue as part of the overall process of destroying government legitimacy and progressively establishing their desired end state. The following are examples of operational objectives:
–isolation of the government from diplomatic and material support, and increased international support for the insurgency
–destruction of the self-confidence of the government’s leaders, cadre and armed forces, causing them to abdicate or withdraw
–establishment of civil cervices and administration ion areas under insurgent control
–capture of the support (or neutrality) of critical segments of the population
Tactical objectives are the immediate aims of insurgent acts, for example, the dissemination of a psychological operation product or the attack and seizure of a key facility. These actions accomplish tactical objectives which lead to operational goals.
4. External support.
There are four types of external support:
– moral acknowledgement of the insurgent cause as just and admirable
– political active promotion of the insurgents strategic goals in international forums
– resources money, weapons, food, advisors, training
– sanctuary secure training, operational and logistic bases
5. Organizational and operational patterns.
Subversive insurgents penetrate the political structure to control it and use it for their own purposes. They seek elective and appointed offices. They
employ violence selectively to coerce voters, intimidate officials, disrupt and discredit the government. Violence shows the system is incompetent. It
may also provoke the government to an excessively violent response which further undermines its legitimacy. A subversive insurgency most often appears in a permissive political environment in which insurgents can use both legal and illegal methods. The typical subversive organization consists of a legal party supported by a clandestine element operating outside the law. Subversive insurgencies can quickly shift to the critical-cell pattern
when conditions dictate. The Nazi rise to power in the 1930s is an example of this model. Subversive insurgencies primarily present a problem for police and counter-intelligence.
In the critical-cell, the insurgents also infiltrate government institutions. Their object is to destroy system from within. The moles operate both covertly and overtly. Normally, the insurgents do not reveal their affiliation or program. They seek to undermine institutional legitimacy and convince or coerce others to assist them. Their violence remains covert until the institutions are so weakened that the insurgency’s superior organization seizes power, supported by armed force. The Russian October, 1917 revolution followed this pattern.
There are variations of the critical-cell pattern, too. The first is the co-opting of an essentially leaderless, mass popular revolution. The Sandinistas takeover of the Nicaraguan revolution is a case of point. The insurgent leadership permits the popular revolution to destroy the existing government. The insurgent movement then emerges, activating its cells to guide reconstruction under its direction. It provides a disciplined structure to control the former bureaucracy. The mass popular revolution then coalesces around the structure.
A second variation of the critical-cell pattern is the foco (or Cuban model) insurgency. A foco is a single, armed cell which emerges from hidden strong holds in an atmosphere of disintegrating legitimacy. In theory, this cell is the nucleus around which mass popular support rallies. The insurgents erect new institutions and establish control on the basis of that support. The foco insurgencies are often made up predominantly of guerrilla fighters operating initially from remote enclaves. The Cuban revolution occurred in this manner. The Cuban experience spawned over 200 subsequent imitative revolutionary attempts patterned on it, principally in Latin America and Africa they all failed, but that does not discredit foco theory. It does emphasize the importance of a particular set of circumstances to this model. Legitimacy must be near total collapse, timing is critical. The Nicaraguan insurgency for example, combined the foco with a broad-front political coalition.
c) Mass oriented.
The mass-oriented insurgency aims to achieve the political and armed mobilization of a large popular movement. They emphasize creating a political and armed legitimacy outside the existing system. They challenge that system and then destroy or supplant it. These insurgents patiently build a large armed force of regular and irregular guerrillas. They also construct a base of active and passive political supporters. They plan a protracted campaign of increasing violence to destroy the governments and its institutions from the outside. They organize in detail. Their political leadership normally is distinct from their military leadership. Their movement establishes a rival government which openly proclaims its own legitimacy. They have a well-developed ideology and decide on their own objectives only after careful analysis. Highly organized and using propaganda and guerrilla action, they mobilize forces for a direct military and political challenge to the government. Once established, mass-oriented insurgencies are extremely resilient because of their great depth of organization. Examples of this model include the communist revolution in China, the Vietcong insurgency, the Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) in Peru.
The traditional insurgency normally grows from very specific grievances and initially has limited aims. It springs from tribal, radical, religious or other similarly identifiable groups. These insurgents perceive that the government has denied the rights and interests of their group and work to establish or restore them. The frequently seek withdrawal from government control through autonomy or semi-autonomy. They seldom seek specifically to overthrow the government or to control the whole society. They generally respond in kind to government violence. Their use of violence can range from strikes and street demonstrations to terrorism or guerrilla warfare. These insurgencies may cease if the government accedes to the insurgentsdemands. The concessions of insurgents demands, however, are usually so great that the government concedes its legitimacy along with them. Examples of this model include the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, the Ibo revolt in Nigeria (Biafra), the Tami separatists in Sri Lanka.
No insurgency follows one pattern exclusively.
Typical missions which guerrillas conduct to accomplish their goals include: destroying or damaging vital installations, equipment or supplies; capturing supplies, equipment, or key governmental or military personnel; diverting government forces from other operations; creating confusion and weakening government morale. Remember: guerrilla is a political war, and asymmetric warfare.
Guerrillas are not normally organized or equipped for stand-and-fight type defensive operations. They prefer to defend themselves by moving, by dispersing into small groups, or by diverting the opponent’s attention while they withdraw. Whenever possible, these operations are accomplished by offensive operations against the opponent’s flank or rear. One of the most important needs of guerrilla forces is support, which can come from different sources – food can be stolen or supplied by political sympathizers, weapons can be gathered from raids on government installations or provided by a foreign power (as well as secret training and indoctrination).
– highly motivated leadership and simple organization. The basic guerrilla organization is an independent three- to five-men cell. The cells can be brought together for larger operations and dispersed later. Guerrillas are organized into cells for two reasons: first, it’s security, second, it’s for support (guerrillas must live off the land to a large degree, and small cells easier support themselves).
– strong belief in a political, religious, or social cause (most of them are fanatics)
– ability to blend with local population and perfect knowledge of environment
– strong discipline
– effective intelligence through penetration into the government agencies
– limited responsibilities (the guerrillas usually don’t have the responsibility to maintain normal governmental obligations toward society)
– the ability to utilize a broad range of tactics, from terror and sabotage through conventional warfare. They don’t hesitate to use bombings, kidnappings, murders, torture, blackmail to press local authorities or provoke overreaction on the part of the government forces, so that the population will be alienated by the government forces actions (it happens when they target government leaders). In cities guerrillas can disrupt public utilities and services by sabotage and the government may lose control of the situation; they can widely use snipers and explosives there. They can generate widespread disturbances, attack government offices, create incidents or massing crowds in order to lure the government forces into a trap.
– mobility. Guerrillas usually disperse during their movements and unite near the target area. The most common techniques employed by them are the ambush, raid and small-scale attacks against security posts, small forces, facilities and lines of communication, using mining, booby trapping and sniping. Targets are selected by the guerrilla based on an analysis of how much the elimination of the target will disrupt the government, what the effect on the populace will be, the risk of being killed or captured, and the amount of weapons or supplies which can be used (this analysis calls for timely intelligence, which is gained by active patrolling).
– mental and physical stress, caused by long periods of isolation in an unstable environment
– fear of criminal prosecution by the government, or of reprisals against friends and family
– feeling of numerical and technological inferiority of counter-guerrilla forces
– limited personnel and resources, and uncertain public base of support
– security problems about their base camps (they are usually not more than one day march from a village or town). If guerrillas receive support from external sources, they are faced with a problem of security for supply lines, transport means and storage facilities. Besides, you have to know their organization and plans, resources (arms, ammunition, food and medicine supply), leaders and their personalities, lines of communications, relations with civilian population, vulnerabilities. (Again, recruit, recruit and recruit! ). You have to evaluate also the effects of terrain (including landing and pickup zones) and the weather effect on men, weapons, equipment, visibility and mobility.
Urban guerrilla warfare has its own peculiarities. Cities and towns arevulnerable to urban guerrilla because they are the focus of economic and political power. In many cases, public utilities can be disrupted and the government may appear to have lost control of the situation. The concentration of a large number of people in a relatively small area provides cover for the guerrilla. However, the insurgent may find support only in a certain areas of a town or a city. Anyway, the urban guerrilla lives in a community that is friendly to him or is too frightened to withhold its support or betray him. In a city the snipers and explosive devices can be placed everywhere. The availability of large numbers of people ensures that crowds can be assembled and demonstrations manipulated easily. The presence of women and children restricts counter-guerrilla force reactions, and excessive force may ensure a major incident that provides the guerrilla with propaganda. Publicity is easily achieved in an urban area because no majorincident can be concealed from the local population even if it is not widely reported by the news media. Every explosion may be exploited to discredit the ability of the government to provide protection and control.
Urban guerrilla tactics:
– disrupting industry and public services by strikes and sabotage
– generating widespread disturbances designed to stretch the resources of the counter-guerrilla force
– creating incidents or massing crowds in order to lure the counter-guerrilla into a trap
– provoking the counter-guerrilla force in the hope that it may overreact (to provide hostile propaganda after that)
– fomenting interfactional strife
– sniping at roadblocks, outposts and sentries
– attacking buildings with rockets and mortars
– planting explosive devices, either against specific targets or indiscriminately, to cause confusion and destruction, and to lower public morale
–ambushing patrols and firing on helicopters
1. Since many insurgents rely on the population for recruits, food, shelter, financing, you must focus your efforts on providing physical and economic
security for that population and defending it against insurgent attacks and propaganda.
2. There must be a clear political program that can neutralize the guerrilla program this can range from granting political autonomy to economic development measures in the affected region + an aggressive media campaign.
3. You have to clean and re-build all levels of the government structure usually insurgents talk about corrupted politicians a lot and that’s why they have support from population.
4. You don’t have to overreact to guerrilla actions, because this is what they are looking for.
5. Use big military operations only to break up significant guerrilla concentrations and split them into small groups.
6. Keep insurgents on run constantly with aggressive patrols, raids, ambushes, sweeps, cordons, roadblocks, prisoner snatches. Intelligence and
recruitment of informants is the key to success. (KGB in post WWII period used bogus guerrilla groups in Western Ukraine that helped reveal real insurgents).
7. An ink spot clear and hold strategy must be used to divide the conflict area into sectors and assign priorities between them. Control must
expand outward like an ink spot on paper, systematically neutralizing and eliminating the insurgents in one sector of the grid, before proceeding to the next. It may be necessary to pursue holding or defensive actions elsewhere, while priority areas are cleared and held.
8. Mass forces, including village self-defense groups and citizen militias organized for community defense can be useful in providing civic mobilization and local security.
9. Use special units and hunter-killer patrols.
10. The limits of foreign assistance must be clearly defined and carefully used. Such aid should be limited either by time, or as to material and technical, and personnel support, or both. While outside aid or even troops can be helpful, lack of clear limits, in terms of either a realistic plan for
victory or exit strategy, may find the foreign helper taking over the local war, and being sucked into a lengthy commitment, thus providing the guerrillas with valuable propaganda opportunities as the stream of dead foreigners mounts. Such scenario occurred with United States in Vietnam and
since 2003 in Iraq.
11. A key factor in guerrilla strategy is a drawn-out, protracted conflict, which wears down the will of the opposing counter-insurgent forces. Democracies are especially vulnerable to the factor of time, but the counter-insurgent force must allow enough time to get the job done.
Tactical counter-guerrilla operations
1. Encirclement, which is designed to cut off all ground routes for escape and reinforcement of the encircled force (darkness recommended) combined with combined with air assault, artillery and airborne troops. And it’s good to divide the enemy while encircling.
Encirclement offers the best chance to fix guerrilla forces in position and achieve decisive results. The battalion and larger units will usually plan and conduct encirclements. The company and smaller units normally do not have the manpower and command and control capability to execute encirclements except as part of a larger force. Encirclements require accurate intelligence on the location of guerrilla elements. Since it requires a major portion of the counterguerrilla force to execute this maneuver, it is usually targeted against large guerrilla forces or guerrilla base complexes, a series of smaller base camps clustered within area. Planning, preparation and execution are aimed at encircling the guerrilla force rapidly. Maximum security and surprise can be gained by occupying the initial encirlclement positions during darkness. In large operations, air assault and airborne troops add speed and surprise to the operation. Positions are occupied simultaneously in order to block escape. If simultaneous occupation is not possible, probable escape routes are covered first. Initial occupation is the most critical period of the operation. When the guerrillas become aware that they are being encircled, they will probably probe for gaps or attack weak points and attempt to break out.
Encircling units provide strong combat patrols far to their front to give early warning of attempted breakouts. Mobile reserves are positioned to counter a breakout and to reinforce difficult areas such as broken terrain or areas with caves, tunnels or fortification complexes. Indirect fire support can serve to cloak an encirclement by gaining and holding the guerrillas attention. Fires are planned in detail to support the encirclement. Following completion of the encirclement, the circle is contracted to capture or destroy the guerrilla force. AS the circle is contracted, units may be removed from the line and added to the reserve. Against small guerrilla forces, the encircled area may be cleared by contraction and a final sweep. Against larger guerrilla forces, however, at some point, some action other than contraction will be required. One technique consists of driving a wedge through the guerrilla force to divide it and then destroying the guerrillas in each subarea. Another technique, employed after some degree of contraction, is to employ a blocking force on one or more sides of the perimeter while the remainder of the encircling force drives the guerrillas against blocking force. Either element may accomplish the actual destruction.
The technique is effective when the blocking force can be located on, or immediately in the rear of, a natural terrain obstacle.
2. Search (of a village), which might be done in different ways:
– assemble inhabitants in a central location (if they are hostile) and then start the operation
– restrict inhabitants to their homes or control the heads of households (and take other family members to a central location) and then start the convoy security operation, which is one of your top priorities.
Think about ambushes and mines on the route all the time and place a strong attack element at the rear of the convoy where it has maximum flexibility in
moving forward to attack guerrillas attempting to ambush the head or center of the convoy. At the first indication of an ambush vehicles have to move out of the killing zone (do not drive to roadsides or shoulders, which may be mined). A security team immediately returns fire from inside vehicles to cover dismounting personnel (if you have to stop) and then dismounts last under cover of the fire by those who dismounted first. Upon dismounting, personnel caught in a killing zone open fire and immediately assault toward the ambush force. Any movements of the troops and supplies are planned and conducted as tactical operations with effective front, flank and rear security.
Search techniques in built-up areas are required when you search either a few isolated huts or buildings, or for searching well-developed urban sections.
a) divide the area to be searched into zones, and assign a search party to each. A search party consists of a search element (to conduct the search), a security element (to encircle the area and prevent entrance and exit, and to secure open areas), and a reserve element (to assist, as required). Then the search element conducts the mission assigned for the operation. Normally it is organized into special teams. The security element surrounds the area while the search element moves in. Members of the security element orient primarily upon evaders from the populated area; however, they can cut off any insurgents trying to reinforce. Checkpoints and roadblocks are established. Subsurface routes of escape, such as subways and sewers, must be considered when operating in cities. The reserve element is a mobile force within a nearby area. Its specific mission is to assist the other two elements should they meetresistance they cannot handler. In addition, it is capable of replacing or reinforcing either of the other two elements should the need arise.
b)consider any enemy material found, including propaganda signs and leaflets, to be booby-trapped until inspection proves it is safe.
c) thoroughly search underground and underwater areas. Any freshly excavated ground can be a hiding place. Use mine detectors to locate metal objects underground and underwater.
d) deploy rapidly, especially when a guerrilla force is still in the area to be searched. The entire area to be searched is surrounded simultaneously. If this is not possible, observed fire must cover that portion not covered by soldiers.
An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or temporary halted target. Ambushes give the counter-guerrilla force several advantages:
a) an ambush does not require ground to be seized or held
b) smaller forces with limited weapons and equipment can harass or destroy larger, better armed forces
c) guerrillas can be forced to engage in decisive combat at unfavorable times and places
d) guerrillas can be denied freedom of movement and deprived of weapons and equipment that are difficult to replace.
Well-planned and well-executed ambushes is the most successful operational technique employed against guerrillas. It is an effective technique to interdict movement guerrilla forces within an area. Selection of the site is a key step in developing a well-organized ambush.
Ambushes are executed to reduce the guerrillas overall combat effectiveness. Destruction is the primary purpose of an ambush since guerrillas killed or captured, and equipment and supplies destroyed or captured, critically affect the guerrilla force. Harassment, the secondary purpose, diverts guerrillas from other missions. A series of successful ambushes causes the guerrilla force to be less aggressive and more defensive, to be apprehensive and overly cautious, and to be reluctant to go on patrols and move in convoys or in small groups.
There are three types of ambushes.
A point ambush involves patrol elements deployed to support the attack of a single killing zone. An area ambush involves patrol elements deployed as multiple, related, point ambushes. An ambush is categorized as either hasty or deliberate.
A hasty ambush is an immediate action drill, an action of a combat patrol with little or no information. When information does not permit detailed planning required for a deliberate ambush, a hasty ambush is planned. In this case, ambush patrol plans and prepares to attack the first suitable guerrilla force. A deliberate ambush is planned as a specific action against a specific target. Detailed information of the guerrilla force is required: size, nature, organization, armament, equipment, route and direction of movement, and time the force will reach or pass certain points on its route. Deliberate ambushes are planned when reliable information is received on the intended movement of a specific force; patrols, convoys, carrying parties or similar forces establish patterns of size, time and movement sufficient to permit detailed planning for the ambush.
Basic elements of an ambush are:
1. Surprise. It has to be achieved or else the attack is not an ambush. Surprise, which distinguishes an ambush from other forms of attack, allows
the ambush force to seize and retain control of the situation. Surprise is achieved by careful planning, preparation and execution. Guerrillas are attacked in a manner they least expect.
2. Coordinated fires. All weapons, including mines and demolitions, are positioned, and all direct and indirect fires are coordinated to achieve
isolation of the kill zone to prevent escape or reinforcement; surprise delivery of a large volume of concentrated fires into the kill zone to inflict maximum damage so the target can be assaulted and destroyed.
3. Control. Close control is maintained during movement to, occupation of, and withdrawal from the ambush site. The ambush commander’s control of all
elements is critical at the time of target approach. Control measures provide for early warning of target approach, withholding fire until the target moves into the kill zone, opening fire a the proper time, initiating appropriate actions if the ambush is prematurely detected, lifting or shifting supporting fires when the ambush includes assault of the target, timely and orderly withdrawal to an easily recognized rallying point.
Planning provides for simplicity, type of ambush and deployment. The attack may be by fire only (harassing ambush) or may include assault of the target (destruction ambush). The force is tailored for its mission. Two men may be adequate for a harassing ambush. A destruction ambush may require the entire unit (squad, platoon, company).
An ambush patrol is organized in the same manner as other combat patrols to include headquarters, an assault element, a support element and a security element. The assault and support are the attack force; the security element is the security force. When appropriate, the attack force is further organized to provide a reserve force. When an ambush site is to be occupied for an extended period, double ambush forces may be organized. One ambush force occupies the site while the other rests, eats and tends to personal needs at the objective rallying point or other concealed location. They alternate after a given time, which is usually 8 hours. If the waiting period is over 24 hours, three ambush forces may be organized.
The selection of equipment and supplies needed is based on the mission, size of guerrilla force, means of transportation, distance and terrain, weight and bulk of equipment. A primary route is planned which allows the unit to enter the ambush site from the rear. The kill zone is not entered if entry can be avoided. If the kill zone must be entered to place mines or explosives, care is taken to remove any tracks or signs that might alert the guerrillas and compromise the ambush. If mines, mantraps or explosives are to be placed on the far side, or if the appearance of the site might cause the guerrillas to check it, then a wide detour around the killing zone is made. Here, too, care is taken to remove any traces which might reveal the ambush.
Also, an alternate route from the ambush site is planned.
Maps and aerial photos are used to analyze the terrain. As far as possible, so-called ideal ambush sites are avoided. Alert guerrillas are suspicious of these areas, avoid them and increase vigilance and security when they must be entered. Considering this, an ambush site must provide fields of fire, concealed positions, canalization of the guerrillas into the killing zone, covered routes of withdrawal ( to enable the ambush force to break contact and avoid pursuit), no-exit route for the guerrilla force.
Ambush force, as a rule occupies the ambush site at the latest possible time permitted by the tactical situation and the amount of site preparation required. This not only reduces the risk of discovery but also reduces the time that soldiers must remain still and quiet in position.
The unit moves into the ambush site from the rear. Security elements are positioned first to prevent surprise while the ambush is being established.
Automatic weapons are then positioned so that each can fire along the entire killing zone. If this is not possible, they are given overlapping sectors of
fire so the entire killing zone is covered. The unit leader then selects his position, located where he can see when to initiate the ambush. Claymore mines, explosives and grenade launchers may be used to cover any dead space left by the automatic weapons. All weapons are assigned sectors of fire to provide mutual support. The unit leader sets a time by which positions are to be prepared. The degree of preparation depends on the time allowed. All men work at top speed during the allotted time. Camouflage is very important each soldier must be hidden from the target and each one has to secure his equipment to prevent noise. At the ambush site, positions are prepared with minimal change in the natural appearance of the site. All debris resulting from preparation of positions is concealed. Movement is kept to a minimum and the number of men moving at a time is closely controlled. Light discipline is rigidly enforced at night.
A point ambush, whether independent or part of an area ambush, is positioned along the expected route of approach of the guerrilla force.
Formation is important because, to a great extent, it determines whether a point ambush can deliver the heavy volume of highly concentrated fire necessary to isolate, trap and destroy the guerrillas. The formation to be used is determined by carefully considering possible formations and theadvantages and disadvantages of each in relation to terrain, conditions of visibility, forces, weapons and equipment ease or difficulty of control, force to be attacked and overall combat situation.
1. Line formation.
The attack element is deployed generally parallel to the guerrilla forces route of movement (road, trail, stream). This positions the attack element parallel to the long axis of the killing zone and subjects the guerrilla force to heavy flanking fire. The size of the force that can be trapped in the killing zone is limited by the area which the attack element can effectively cover with highly concentrated fire. The force is trapped in the killing zone by natural obstacles, mines, demolitions, and direct and indirect fires. A disadvantage of the line formation is the chance that lateral dispersion of the force may be too big for effective coverage. The line formation is appropriate in close terrain that restricts guerrilla maneuver and in open terrain where one flank is restricted by mines, demolitions or mantraps. Similar obstacles can be placed between the attack element and the killing zone to provide protection from guerrilla counter-ambush measures. When a destruction ambush is deployed in this manner, access lanes are left so that the force in the killing zone can be assaulted. The line formation can be effectively used by a rise from the ground ambush in terrain seemingly unsuitable for ambush. An advantage of the line formation is its relative ease of control under all conditions of visibility.
The L-formation is a variation of the line formation. The long side of the attack element is parallel to the killing zone and delivers flanking fire.
The short side of the attack element is at the end of, and at right angles to, the killing zone and delivers enfilading fire that interlocks with fire from the other leg. This formation is flexible. It can be established on a straight stretch of a trail or stream or at a sharp bend in a trail or
stream. When appropriate, fire from the short leg can be shifted to parallel the long leg if the guerrilla force attempts to assault or escape in the opposite direction. In addition, the short leg prevents escape in that direction or reinforcement from that direction.
The Z-shaped formation is another variation of the L-formation. The attack force is deployed as in the L-formation but with an additional side so that the formation resembles the letter Z. The additional side may serve to engage a force attempting to relieve or reinforce the guerrillas, restrict a flank, prevent envelopment (of the ambush force), seal the end of the killing zone.
The attack element is deployed across, and at right angles to, the route of movement of the hostile force so that the attack element and the target form
the letter T. This formation can be used day or night to establish a purely harassing ambush, and at night to establish an ambush to interdict movement through open, hard-to-seal areas (such as rice paddies). A small unit can use the T-formation to harass, slow and disorganize a larger force. When the lead guerrilla elements are engaged, they will normally attempt to maneuver right or left to close with the ambush force. Mines, mantraps and other obstacles
placed to the flanks of the killing zone slow the guerrillas movement and permit the unit to deliver heavy fire and then withdraw without becoming decisively engaged. The T-formation can be used to interdict small groups attempting night movement across open areas. For example, the attack element may be deployed along a rice paddy dike with every second member facing in the opposite direction. The attack of a force approaching from either direction requires only that every second member shift to the opposite side of the dike. Each member fires only to his front and only when the target is at a close range. Attack is by fire only, and each member keeps the guerrilla force under fire as long as it remains to his front. If the force attempts to
escape in either direction along the dike, each member takes it under fire as it comes into his vicinity. The T-formation is effective at halting infiltration. It has one chief disadvantage: there is a possibility that while spread out the ambush will engage a superior force. Use of this formation must, therefore, fit the local enemy situation.
The V-shaped attack element is deployed along both sides of the guerrilla route of movement so that it forms a V. Care is taken to ensure that neither group (or leg) fires into the other. This formation subjects the guerrilla to both enfilading and interlocking fire. The V-formation is suited for fairly open terrain but can also be used in the jungle. When established in the jungle, the legs of the V close in as the lead elements of the guerrilla force approach the apex of the V, elements then open fire from close range. Here, even more than in open terrain, all movement and fire is carefully coordinated and controlled to ensure that the fire of one leg does not endanger the other. Wider separation of the elements makes this formation difficult to control, and there are fewer sites that favor its use. Its main advantage is that it is difficult for the guerrilla to detect the ambush until well into the killing zone.
6. Triangle formation.
Closed triangle. The attack element is deployed in 3 groups, positioned so they form a triangle (or closed V). An automatic weapon is placed at each
point of the triangle and positioned so that it can be shifted quickly to interlock with either of the others. Elements are positioned so that their fields of fire overlap. Mortars may be positioned inside the triangle. When deployed in this manner, the triangle ambush becomes a small unit strongpoint which is used to interdict night movement through open areas, when guerrilla approach is likely to be from any direction. The formation provides all-round security, and security elements are deployed only when they can be positioned so that, if detected by an approaching target, they will not compromise the ambush. Attack is by fire only, and the target is allowed to approach within close range before the ambush force opens fire. Advantages include ease of control, all-round security, and guerrillas approaching from any direction can be fired on by at least two automatic weapons. Disadvantages include the requirement for an ambush force of platoon size or larger to reduce the danger of being overturn by a guerrilla force; one or more legs of the triangle may come under guerrilla enfilade fire; and lack of dispersion, particularly at the points, increases danger from guerrilla mortar fire.
Open triangle (harassing ambush).
This variation of the triangle ambush is designed to enable a small unit to harass, slow, and inflict heavy casualties upon a larger force without being decisively engaged. The attack group is deployed in 3 elements, positioned so that each element becomes a corner of a triangle containing the killing zone. When the guerrillas enter the killing zone, the element to the guerrillas front opens fire on the lead guerrillas. When the guerrillas counterattack, the element withdraws and an assault element to the flank opens fire. When this group is attacked, the element to the opposite flank opens fire. This process is repeated until the guerrillas are pulled apart. Each element reoccupies its position, if possible, and continues to inflict maximum damage without becoming decisively engaged.
Open triangle (destruction ambush).
The attack group is again deployed in 3 elements, positioned so that each element is a point of the triangle, 200 to 300 meters apart. The killing zone is the area within the triangle. The guerrillas are allowed to enter the killing zone; the nearest element attacks by fire. As the guerrillas attempt to maneuver or withdraw, the other elements open fire. One or more assault elements, as directed, assault or
maneuver to envelop or destroy the guerrillas. As a destruction ambush, this formation is suitable for platoon-size or larger units; a unit smaller than a platoon would be in danger of being overrun. Also, control in assaulting or maneuvering is difficult. Close coordination and control are necessary to ensure that assaulting or maneuvering elements are not fired by another party; and the ambush site must be a fairly level, open area that provides (around its border) concealment for the ambush elements (unless it is a rise from the ground ambush).
7. Box formation.
This formation is similar in purpose to the open triangle ambush. The unit is deployed in 4 elements positioned so that each element becomes a corner of a square or rectangle containing the killing zone. It can be used as a harassing ambush or a destruction ambush in the same manner as the two variations of the open triangle ambush.
Killing zone. A point ambush is established at a site having several trails or other escape routes leading away from it. The site may be a water hole, guerrilla campsite, or known rendezvous point, or a frequently traveled trail. This site is the central killing zone.
Area ambush multiple point.
Point ambushes are established along the trails or other escape routes leading away from the central killing zone. The guerrilla force, whether a single group or several parties approaching from different directions, is permitted to move to the central killing zone. Outlying ambushes do not attack (unless discovered). The ambush is initiated when the guerrillas move into the central killing zone. When the guerrillas break contact and attempt to disperse, escaping portions are intercepted and destroyed by the outlying ambushes. The multiple point ambush increases casualties and harassment and produces confusion.
This version of the area ambush is best suited in terrain where movement is largely restricted to trails. It provides best results when established as a deliberate ambush. When there is not sufficient intelligence for a deliberate ambush, an area ambush of opportunity (hasty ambush) may be established. The outlying ambushes are permitted to attack guerrillas approaching the central killing zone, if the guerrilla force is small. If it is too large for the particular outlying ambush, the guerrillas are allowed to continue and they are attacked in the central killing zone.
Area ambush: baited trap.
A variation of the area ambush. A central killing zone is established along the guerrillas route of approach. Point ambushes are established along the routes over which units relieving or reinforcing the guerrilla will have to approach. The guerrilla force in the central killing zone serves as a bait to lure relieving or reinforcing guerrilla units into the kill zones of the outlying ambushes. A friendly force can also be used as the bait. The outlying point ambushes need not be strong enough to destroy their targets. They may be small harassing ambushes that delay, disorganize and cause casualties by successive contacts.
This version can be varied by using a fixed installation as bait to lure relieving or reinforcing guerrilla units into the killing zone to overcome the installation or may use it as a ruse. These variations are best suited for situations where routes of approach for relieving or reinforcing guerrilla units are limited to those favorable for ambush.
Unusual ambush techniques
Spider hole ambush.
This point ambush is designed for open areas that lack cover and concealment and other features normally desirable in a good ambush site. The attack element is deployed in the formation best suited to the overall situation. The attack element is concealed in the spider hole type of covered foxhole. Soil is carefully removed and positions camouflaged. When the ambush is initiated, the attack element members throw back the covers and rise from the ground to attack. This ambush takes advantage of the tendency of patrols and other units, to relax in areas that do not appear to favor ambush. The chief advantage is that the ambush element is vulnerable if detected prematurely.
Dual primed, electrically detonated mines or demolition charges are planted in the area over which a guerrilla force is expected to pass. This may be a portion of as road or trail, an open field, or any area that can be observed from a distance. Activating wires are run to a concealed observation point sufficiently distant to ensure safety of the ambush element. As large a force as desired or necessary can be used to mine the area. The ambush element remains to fire the charges, other personnel return to the unit. When a guerrilla force enters the mined area (killing zone), the element on site detonates the explosives and withdraws immediately to avoid detection and pursuit.
Special ambush situation.
Attacks against columns protected by armored vehicles depend on the type and location of armored vehicles in a column, and the weapons of the ambush force. If possible, armored vehicles are destroyed or disabled by fire or antitank weapons, landmines and Molotov cocktails, or by throwing hand grenades into open hatches. An effort is made to immobilize armored vehicles at a point where they are unable to give protection to the rest of the convoy and where they will block the route of other supporting vehicles. In alternate bounds, all except the first two vehicles keep their relative places in the column. The first two vehicles alternate as lead vehicles on each bound. Each covers the bound of the other. This method
provides more rapid advance than movement by successive bounds but is less secure it doers not allow soldiers in the second vehicle enough time to thoroughly observe the terrain to the front before passing the first vehicle. Security is obtained by the vehicle commander who assigns each soldier a direction of observation: to the front, flank(s) or rear. This provides each vehicle with some security against surprise fire from every direction and provides visual contact with vehicles to the front and rear. For maximum observation, all canvas is removed from the vehicles.
Action at danger areas.
The commander of the leading vehicle immediately notifies the unit leader when he encounters an obstacle or other danger area.
Designated soldiers reconnoiter these places under cover of the weapons in the vehicle. Obstacles are bypassed, if possible. When they cannot be bypassed, they are cautiously removed. Side roads intersecting the route of advance are investigated. Soldiers from one vehicle secure the road junction; one or two vehicles investigate the side road. The amount of reconnaissance of side roads is determined by the patrol leaders knowledge of the situation. Men investigating side roads do not, however, move past supporting distance of the main body of the patrol. Bridges, road junctions, defiles and curves (that deny observation beyond the turn) are danger areas. Soldiers dismount and take advantage of available cover and concealment to investigate these areas. The vehicle is moved off the road into a covered or concealed position; weapons from the vehicle cover the advance of the investigating personnel.
Ambush during darkness is difficult to control, bur darkness increases the security of the ambush party and the confusion of those being ambushed.
4. Roadblocks and checkpoints.
Element of the checkpoint force has to be positioned and concealed at appropriate distance from the checkpoint to prevent the escape of any vehicle or person attempting to turn back.
It’s necessary to maintain a continuous check on road movement to apprehend suspects and to prevent smuggling of controlled items. Since checkpoints cause considerable inconvenience and even fear, it’s important that the civil population understands that checkpoints are a preventive and not a punitive measure. Checkpoints may be deliberate or hasty. The deliberate checkpoint is positioned in a town or in the open country, often on a main road. It acts as a useful deterrent to unlawful movement. The hasty checkpoint is highly mobile and is quickly positioned in a town or in the open country. The actual location of the hasty checkpoint is designed to achieve quick success.
Concealment of a checkpoint is desirable, but often impossible. The location should make it difficult for a person to turn back or reverse a vehicle without being observed. Culverts, bridges or deep cuts may be suitable locations. Positions beyond sharp curves have the advantage that drivers do not see the checkpoint in sufficient time to avoid inspection. Safety disadvantages may outweight the advantages of such positions. A scarcity of good roads increases the effect of a well-placed checkpoint. A checkpoint requires adequate troops to prevent ambush and surprise by a guerrilla force.
Used to saturate areas of suspected guerrilla activity, control critical roads, maintain contact between villages and units, interdict guerrilla routes of supply and communication, provide internal security in rural and urban areas, locate guerrilla units and base camps. A patrol is a
detachment sent out by a larger unit to conduct a combat or reconnaissance operation. Patrolling is used when limited (or no) intelligence on guerrilla activity is available. Routes are planned carefully and coordinated with higher, lower and adjacent units, to include air and ground fire support elements and reserve forces. There are three key principles to successful patrolling: detailed planning, thorough reconnaissance, all-round security.
It often happens that the patrol has to break the contact with a larger enemy (to break contact use the clock system. the direction the patrol moves is
always 12 o’clock. When contact is made, the leader shouts a direction and distance to move (such as 7 o’clock, 400 meters. The leader can also use the system to shift or direct fire at a certain location).
Saturation patrolling is extremely effective patrols are conducted by many lightly armed, small, fast-moving units and provide thorough area coverage. Patrols move over planned and coordinated routes which are engaged frequently to avoid establishing patterns. Use of saturation patrolling results in the sustained denial of an area to guerrilla forces as they seek to avoid contact with the counter-guerrilla units. In addition to harassment and discovery of guerrilla tactical forces, this technique provides an opportunity to gain an intimate knowledge of the area of operations; a form of reassurance to the local population that the government is concerned about their protection and security; a means by which information about the guerrilla can be obtained.
Watch out: guerillas usually try to cut the lines of communications by mining roads, waterways and railways, or by ambushes located adjacent to them, blow up bridges and tunnels.
Footprints. You can read the following by footprints:
– the direction and rate of movement of a party
– the number of persons in a party
– whether or not heavy loads are carried
– the sex of the members of the party
– whether the members of a party know they are being followed
If the footprints are deep and the pace is long, the party is moving rapidly. Very long strides and deep prints, with toe prints deeper than heel prints, indicate the party is running. If the prints are deep, short and widely spaced, with signs of scuffing or shuffling, a heavy load is probably being carried by the parson who left the prints. You can also determine a person’s sex by studying the size and position of the footprints. Women generally tend to be pigeon-toed, while men usually walk with their feet pointed straight ahead or slightly to the outside. Womens’ prints are usually smaller than mens’, and their strides usually shorter. If a party knows it is being followed, it may attempt to hide its tracks. Persons walking backward have a short, irregular stride. The prints have and unusually deep toe. The soil will be kicked in the direction of movement. The last person in a group usually leaves the clearest footprints. Therefore, use his prints as the key set.
Use the box method to count the number of persons in the group. Up to 18 persons can be counted. Use it when the key prints can be determined. To use this method, identify a key print on a trail and draw line from its heel across the trail. Then move forward to the key print of the opposite foot and draw a line through its instep. This should form a box with the edges of the trail forming two sides, and the drawn lines forming the other two sides.
Next, count every print of partial print inside the box to determine the number of persons. Any person walking normally would have stepped in the box
at least one time. Count the key prints as one. Also, you can track paying attention to such things as foliage, moss, vines, sticks or rocks moved from their original places; stones and sticks that are turned over; grass that is bent or broken in the direction of movement.
A good example of staining is the mark left by blood from a bleeding wound. You can determine the location of a wound on a man being followed by studying the bloodstains. If the blood seems to be dripping steadily, it probably came from a wound on his trunk. A wound in the lungs will deposit bloodstains that are pink, bubbly, frothy. A bloodstain deposited from a head wound will appear heavy, wet and slimy, like gelatin. Abdominal wounds often mix blood with digestive juices so that the deposit will have an odor, and the stains will be light in color. Water in footprints in swampy ground may be muddy if the tracks are recent. In time, however, the mud will settle and the water is clear. The clarity of the water can be used to estimate the age of the prints. Normally, the mud will clear in 1 hour, but that will vary with terrain. If a party knows that you are tracking it, it will probably use camouflage to conceal its movements and to slow and confuse you. Remember: a well-defined approach that leads to the enemy will probably be mined, ambushed or covered by snipers.
6. Aerial search.
This technique has little value in areas of dense vegetation. Use of search units mounted in armed helicopters should be limited to those operations in which sufficient intelligence exists to justify their use and then normally in conjunction with ground operations. In ground search operations, helicopters drop off troops in an area suspected of containing guerrillas. With
the helicopters overmatching from the air, troops search the area. Troops are then picked up and the process is repeated in other areas.
It is an operation involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, harass the guerrilla or destroy the guerrilla force
and its installation. Raids are usually targeted against single, isolated guerrilla base camps. To assist in attaining surprise, the raiding force uses inclement weather, limited visibility, or terrain normally considered impassable. If night airborne or air assault raids are conducted, the force must be accurately inserted and oriented on the ground. Air assault forces supported by armed helicopters offer infinite possibilities for conducting raids. This type of force can move in, strike the objective and withdraw without extensive preparation or support from other sources.
8. Crowd dispersal.
9. Assassination of the guerrilla leader.
10. Taking hostages to press guerrillas.
11. Organization of false guerrilla units.
Meanwhile the enemy will attempt to engage you in locations where your fire would endanger civilians or damage their property. You have to match the size of the guerrilla unit. Employing a large force to counter a smaller one is inefficient because it compromises the chance of achieving surprise.
Psychological operations (PSYOP) in foreign internal defense include propaganda and other measures to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile, neutral, or friendly groups to support the achievement of national objectives. There are 5 major target groups for PSYOP:
The major PSYOP objective here is to discredit the insurgents and isolate them from he population. The most important direction of attack
is against their morale. Themes should publicize and exploit differences between cadre, recruits, supporters, and the local population. Other themes might stress lack of support, isolation, homesickness, and hardship. Amnesty programs are often useful in neutralizing insurgents, and they are most effective when they are well publicized, directed against lower ranking members of the insurgency, and offer sufficient reason and benefits for quitting the unit. These programs do, however, have several disadvantages: they recognize the insurgents as a legitimate political force, they forgo punishment of anyone accepting amnesty, and they increase the image of the insurgents threat.
2. The population supporting the insurgents.
You have to achieve withdrawal of support for the insurgents and a total defection. Propaganda should highlight the insurgents shortcomings, ultimate government victory, government successes, and the practical advantages of surrendering or of accepting amnesty. Sometimes, displays of military might are used; invading forces may assemble and parade through the streets of conquered towns, attempting to demonstrate the futility of any further fighting. Thesedisplays may also include public executions of enemy soldiers, resistance fighters, and other conspirators. Particularly in antiquity, the death or imprisonment of a popular leader was sometimes enough to bring about a quick surrender. However, this has often had the unintended effect of creating martyrs around which popular resistance can rally.
3. The uncommitted population.
The major mission here is to build national morale, unity, and confidence in the government. There should also be a major
effort to win popular acceptance of the government force, and convince the people that government programs serve their interests, the government forces
can protect them, ultimate government victory is assured. This may be accomplished through re-education, allowing conquered citizens to participate in their government, or, especially in impoverished or besieged areas, simply by providing food, water and shelter.
4. Government personnel.
When targeting government personnel, seek to maintain loyalties and develop policies and attitudes which will result in
group members who will realize the importance of popular support, promote public welfare and justice, take action to eliminate the basic causes of the
subversive insurgency, and protect the population. You have to indoctrinate the host country security and military forces regarding the importance of the civilian population support. When government personnel interact with neutral and non-hostile elements of the population, the emphasis should be positive
5. Foreign audiences. There are two major groups to be addressed: neutral nations and hostile nations. For neutral nations, the purpose of
psychological operations is to achieve friendly neutrality or active support for your side. For hostile powers, the major objective of these operations is
to influence public opinion against involvement in supporting the insurgency. Besides, you have to use psychological operations to establish and maintain a
favorable image of our country. The themes most useful in establishing that image are that the US presence is requested by the host country government, it is legal and necessary, it is temporary, and it is advisory. Intelligence operations are facilitated by employing psychological operation media to inform the people that they should report to the proper authority information
pertaining to strangers, suspicious persons, and guerrilla activities. Posters and leaflets provide definite instruction as to persons and places that are available to receive the information (indicate what rewards are available).
The Viet Cong used hit and run attacks involving a small group, usually hiding in ambush and attacking a larger force, only to retreat
seconds later. This reduced the advantages of the conventional forces advanced weapon systems. It gave an ambushed squad no time to call in artillery or air strike. Booby traps ( like simple spikes, incorporated into various types of traps, for example, in camouflaged pit into which a man might fall) were another common tactic among guerrillas. Grenade traps (poised with the pin removed) were also used. Moving them would take the pressure off the lever, causing the grenades to explode. Camouflage was very important, and fighters travelled in small groups, often wearing civilian clothes to make it difficult for American soldiers to know who they were.
Often, they would in tunnels underground. Tunnels and spider holes were often used to spring ambushes on American troops. The Vietcong would wait for part of American formation to pass before coming out of the ground and opening fire. Before the Americans had a chance to realize where the fire
came from, the Vietcong would duck back into the trenches. This often caused fratricide (friendly fire incident) because soldiers who were ambushed would
fire back behind them, hitting other American patrols. American troops, usually assigned to Vietnam for a one-year tour of duty, found themselves
ill-trained to wage a war against a mostly invisible enemy.
When the Stinger missile was introduced to Mujahideen, they began to ambush Soviet helicopters and fixed wing aircraft at airfields. The Stinger was
effective only up to 15, 000 feet (4, 600 m), so Mujahideen would attack aircraft as they were landing or taking off. Soviets modified their tactics:
helicopters stayed over friendly forces, fixed wing aircraft began flying higher, and armor and electronic defense systems were added to aircraft to help protect them from Stinger. Also, Spetsnaz ( Special Forces) were used extensively. They would be flown into areas where Mujahideen often passed,
had been seen or were ambushing someone. Tanks and aircraft were of comparatively little use. The only technology with a significant impact on
Mujahideen were land mines and helicopters. As the Soviets got stalled, they began punishing the local population for supporting Mujahideen. It was not
uncommon for Soviet helicopters to raze an Afghan village in retaliation for an attack against Soviet soldiers. They also dropped mines from aircraft in
fields and pastures and shot livestock with machineguns. Another common tactic was to cordon off and search villages for Mujahideen.
Chechnya (Russia) experience
The conflict between Russia and Chechen terrorists has been mostly a guerilla war. Most fighting was done with the support of armored vehicles,
artillery and aircraft, rather than infantry. Russian soldiers were not prepared for urban warfare in Grozny (the capital of Chechnya). Terrorists would hide on the top floors and basements of buildings armed with small arms and anti-tank weapons. The Russians came in with convoys of armored vehicles which were unprepared for the tactics the terrorists would use. Chechen ambush tactics were planned, and involved destroying the first and the last vehicle (armored personnel carrier or a tank) in the column. This was done by either rocket propelled grenade (RPG) or improvised explosive device. If the initial attack was successful, the rest of the convoy would be trapped in between. Later Russians used artillery and airstrikes more extensively.
Terrorists changed their urban combat tactics and used fire-teams of three fighters : a machine gunner, a sniper and a fighter armed with rocket propelled grenade. As a result, a very small and mobile fire-team could meet any potential sizable threat with great effectiveness. Chechen snipers used to wound Russian soldiers and pick off their rescuers. They also shot off antennas from the moving armored personnel carriers since this was often the only means of communication with the command center, the troops inside would end up isolated and attacked with RPG or by the sniper as they tried to repair the antenna. As Russia controlled more area, ambushes gave place to roadside bombings, and these usually involved modified mines and improvised explosive devices.
U. S. – Iraq war experience
Suicide bombers attack American soldiers at checkpoints, on patrols, on their bases and in convoys. Iraqis used the same tactics Chechen terrorists used against convoys.
U. S. – Afghanistan war experience
Air strikes and Special Forces raids effective, CIA failed.
PART 3. Special operations
1. “Domino” or “chain reaction. ” A coup, revolution or civil war in one country provokes the same actions in other countries (neighbors). It doesn't matter what country is going to be next, most important – what country is a target.
2. “False flag”. Hijacking a passenger plane and blaming it on other country..
3. “Sliding” strategy. Transformation of a secret operation into an open one: support of illegal opposition/coup.
4. “Restriction. ” You damage (limit) international and economic connections (projects) of the enemy.
5. “Monopoly. ” Special operation to keep country’s monopoly or status as economic leader or special (nuclear) holder, or high tech producer. Includes actions to restrict the attempts of other countries to get strategic raw materials and modern weapons and technologies.
6. “Reverse effect. ” The government declares a certain goal and launches a military or special operation, but the result is something quite different, possibly opposite. Examples: instead of separating (ethnic) group “A” from group “B” both of them are being exterminated; instead of peace and democracy in a certain region, power is being concentrated in one group and the opposition is being exterminated.
7. “Clash. ” You “clash” the government and opposition of a target country and support civil war until the country is ruined and you get it for free.
8. “Salami-slice strategy”. It’s a process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition. It includes the creation of several factions within the opposing political party, and then dismantling that party from inside, without causing the “sliced” sides to protest.
9. “Positive shock. ” A domestic operation; to save the government during a crisis, special service provokes artificial civil conflict or sabotage, imitation (terror), and the government takes care of the “problem. ”
10. “Controlled crisis export” (see “Foreign Policy”)
11. “Sanitation border. ” “Fencing” the target country by enemies (neighbors).
12. “Alibi. ” You build a “chain” of evidence (witnesses) and move the investigation to a dead end.
13. “Passive sabotage. ” A very effective strategy used to cover up a major action like the assassination of a President or the destruction of several office towers. You just “do not see the bad guys” who are going to kill the President or blow up the city. In any case you win — the perpetrators are not sure you are watching them; you can arrest them if the object survives or liquidate them once the object is dead. You don’t need a big conspiracy, you just give the order to ignore certain people until their plan materializes.
14. “Special tour. ” You help the target country to “build democratic institutions” (the government and local administrations) by sending official crews to help. Actually, they rule the country and that’s a “hidden occupation. ”
15. “Mask. ” You mask your actual global plans (reforms) by another big action (war).
16. Illegal espionage operations. Very dangerous, because illegal spy is playing born American and can make career in business, becoming #1 Pentagon supplier or in the government, getting to the Congress or even White House.
17. If you can control the object (country) you have to destabilize it.
P. S. KGB and GRU recruited thousands secret sources in Afghanistan.
PART 4. Espionage.
Actual espionage is not what you see in the movies and you have absolutely no chance of evasion if a real professional surveillance crew is following you. Why? Because they use multiple methods and mixed methods.. Physical surveillance.
"One line" – officers follow the object forming a line behind him and passing him one by one.
"Two lines" – officers form two lines on both sides of the street.
"Circle" – officers block the area and start searching (used in case they lose the object).
"Fork" – one officer (a car) moves in front of the object, another one – behind, other officers (cars) move along parallel streets
"Box" – used when the object enters supermarket, hotel, restaurant. One or two officers follow the object, the others wait for him at the exits.
"Demonstration" – officers demonstrate their presence to press the object and lower his activity.
"Provocation" – officers attack the object, beat him, steal (secret) documents. Often used to lower his activity if he’s trying to play James Bond.
"Outstrip" – officers do not follow the object because they know exactly where he’s going.
"Football" – officers pass the object to each other (car — a group — bicyclist — car…)
"Movie" – the crew watches the object in stages: first day — to the subway only, second day — from subway to his office, etc. (used abroad). The crew has to have a female member if they are watching a woman (she could use the ladies room for a secret meeting) and members of various ethnicities (white, black, Latino) because the object could go to a specific ethnic area.
If you’re the object and you’ve noticed surveillance:
Don’t rush, move at the same speed.
Relax at the nearest bar (and relax the crew).
Don’t show how professional you are by trying to disappear, otherwise they could intensify surveillance or even neutralize you (smash your car, beat you up).
Postpone the operation you were engaged in.
Use a "draught" if you need to see your agent no matter what. Change lanes (if you are driving), stop the car and then drive left or right.
If you don’t see surveillance, that means either there’s no surveillance or you’ve failed in counter-surveillance. Discreetly watch the agent who’s coming to meet you and try to detect any possible surveillance; or you may have been "outstripped. "
Surveillance crew mistakes:
The same crew follows the object all day long.
The object "rules" the crew and calculates it (he moves faster — the crew moves faster).
A crew member is too noticeable (unusual dress, haircut, disabled parts of the body, too fat or too skinny, too ugly or too pretty).
The crew starts to search possible hiding places for espionage evidence right after the object leaves (and he may be watching).
The crew leaves traces after a secret search of the object’s house (office).
The crew does not report its mistakes or the fact that they’ve lost the object.
The crew is not professional (using childish tricks like jumping out of a subway train just before the doors close).
1. Visual surveillance. Done through special holes in the ceilings and walls, through the windows from the opposite building (car) or by installing the camera inside the house (you can substitute something, like a clock, for the same thing but "stuffed" with a camera or recorder. ) You can use informant as well to watch the object outside his house (especially if you want to do a secret search).
2. Listening devices. The easiest thing is to listen to the object’s phone (record all calls, including those dialed "by mistake"). If you work inside his apartment, make sure you equip the room where he usually talks. Attention: avoid widespread mistake when your agent keeps the listening device on his body; install a miniature device in his clothes or shoes, because the object could try a test and ask the agent to take off his clothes or invite him to the sauna or pool.
3. If you are working abroad, listen 24/7 to local counterintelligence surveillance radiofrequencies.
4. Reading the mail. When you control the object’s mail, remember he could use multiple addresses and PO boxes. Open all the letters with no return address or PO box. Watch when you open the letter — the object could leave a tiny piece of paper, hair, etc. to check if anybody opened the letter. Analyze the text carefully — there could be a cipher or the words with double meaning (jargon), especially when you read mafia mail.
5. Combination of above-mentioned methods
” Illegal ” spies.
When I talk about “the best, ” I mean the highest intelligence level — illegal spies, intelligence operatives who are secretly deployed abroad and covertly operate there under assumed names and well-documented cover stories, masquerading as native citizens. It’s very important if you get, for example, original birth certificate of American citizen, who died (at young age preferably) or any records and documents on him(birth, wedding, death, any IDs, etc).
The process of training and “installing” such officer is rather complex and includes:
a) Special training. Foreign language, general, political and special (espionage and counter-espionage) knowledge of the target country; personal cover story — new biography, special technical devices, recruitment methods). Up to three years.
b) Illegal probation period abroad. A trip abroad through intermediate countries with numerous changes of passports and cover stories, jobs, personal connections. Then he gets to the target country, stays there for another 1-2 years and goes back to his country for additional training and correction of cover story — actually, it’s his first combat assignment. The most important part of this assignment is to check the reliability of the cover story and documents; the cover story has to be reinforced with new and old true facts, like short-term studies at universities or professional training courses).
c) Intermediate legislation. On his way back the officer could stay in an intermediate country for another 1-2 years, make contacts with business, scientists, government employees, celebrities.
d) Basic legislation. Officer comes to the target country, obtains genuine documents, gets a job which allows him to travel and talk to many people, recruit informants thus creating an illegal station.
The illegal is usually supplied with a variety of cover documents to make him “invisible” for counter-intelligence — some are used only to cross the borders on the way to a target country, others — to live there, other documents — only for travel to “third countries” to meet with officers of legal or illegal stations or to be used in case of urgent recall to home country (in that case the illegal is supposed to transit at least two or three countries). His further activity depends on how professional counter-espionage service is working in the country.
He could fail in his mission also because of:
– poor training and low quality documents
– neglecting security rules.
– one mistake in pronunciation can give you away
– treason (traitor-informant or a “mole” inside his own service)
– low personal security level (while working with sources)
If we talk about “legal plants”, KGB (and modern Russian SVR) loves to recruite Harvard, Yale and Columbia students and “push” them to the top of American politics – US Congress, the White House, the Cabinet.
1. 4 “Golden” rules
1. No mercy, no ideology, no emotions.
2. Intuition is nothing but the ability to watch and analyze.
3. No evidence is evidence in itself.
4. Distrust is a mother of security.
5. Never look as if you are sizing up the person — that’s a sign that gives away cops and spies.
6. Don’t start first if you don’t know the rules.
7. The way you act is the way you think — behavior is a system of codes (information) which could be calculated by the enemy. Watch your face — that’s a shop window.
8. Think fast, talk slow.
9. Avoid self-programming and never think bad about yourself.
10. Don’t smoke, drink or take drugs if it’s not necessary; spare your stomach from very hot or cold food or drinks; avoid too much noise and light.
11. Don’t be shy to lie — the more you lie the more people respect you.
12. Let people talk out and “empty their brains” — then load your information.
13. People never change — everybody wants to get pleasure and avoid pain.
14. “He knew too much” means “He talked too much. ”
15. Never ask extra questions — wait. Wait and the object will get used to you and open himself — nobody can stay tense for long.
16. Lonely people live longer in espionage business.
17. “No exit” situation is the one you don’t like or don’t understand.
– personal enemies (they fix negative information on you)
– silent types (they notice and think too much)
– other professionals (they’ll blow your identity)
– extra stress (it damages your heart and blood vessels and that kills your brain and your ability to think )
– talking too much
If a spy is an intelligence officer working abroad under "cover" (diplomat, businessman, reporter) you can identify him by:
– following the careers of all diplomats who work at your enemy’s embassies all over the world
– recruiting a "mole" inside the intelligence service (or inside the station)
– setting up your agent for recruitment by the enemy’s station
– watching foreigners who try to make discreet contacts with native citizens with access to secrets
– making a model of a spy (professional behavior, attempts to detect surveillance, attempts to recruit sources or just get any classified information during normal meetings, "throwing away" money trying to get access to government employees, military and scientific circles)
– using secret surveillance and listening devices inside the station and practicing secret searches
If a spy is an intelligence officer working in your country under "cover" of a native citizen (or he is recruited by a native citizen) you identify him by making a model (contacts with identified spies — that’s often the only sign which points out a spy, and that’s why surveillance is very important in getting information from a "mole").
A "mole" is a spy inside the government, recruited or "installed" most often within the special services, by an outside government/agency. The 3 most dangerous things a "mole" can do:
1. Calculate President’s plans and decisions judging by information he’s asking for.
2. Manipulate information being sent to President, and thus influence global political decisions
3. Paralyze to some extent the government (if he’s CIA or FBI Director)
Methods to detect a "mole":
A. Use index cards (special file) — never use computers to save this information!
Prepare a file on each officer and mark there the signs of a "mole" — has or spends too much money, asks too many extra questions; uses professional skills to check for physical and technical surveillance; has discreet contacts with foreigners; discreet copying of top secret documents; attempts to get a job in most secret departments; talks with close friends and family members about the possibility of making money as a "mole"; behavior deviations — extra suspiciousness, excitement, depression, drugs or alcohol addiction. Three signs are enough to start an investigation — the "triangulation" principle.
B. Use provocation. If a prospective "mole" is looking for a contact with the enemy and is ready to betray, and you have exact information, organize such a "meeting" for him. Do not arrest the person right away — play along, as he may give you connections to other people who are ready to betray. There’s one more provocation method: you supply the suspects with "highly classified information" and just watch what they do.
C. Use "filter" or "narrowing the circle. " Include all the officers you suspect in a "circle" and narrow it until one name is left as the most likely suspect.
D. Make a "model" of a "mole, " judging by information you have on him.
E. Recruit an insider. Recruit a "mole" inside your enemy’s intelligence service and he’ll help you to find the one inside yours (it’s called "grabbing the other end of a thread").
F. Don’t trust anybody.
What to do if you detect a "mole"
– assess the damage
– restrict his access to classified information and start "feeding" him with fake data
– stop all operations he was involved in and create the illusion they are still in progress
– bring home officers and agents who work abroad and had contacts with him and those to whose files he had access
– start 24/7 surveillance if you’ve decided to play the game and look into his contacts
– arrest the "mole" discreetly (if you want to continue the game)
Attention : Effective methods to prevent treason do not exist.
How to cover your "mole"
There are special methods to cover your own "mole" and a "switch" is the most effective — it’s when you "switch" counterintelligence to other, innocent persons who work with the "mole. " You can try information "leaks" through a "double agent" — it looks like you receive top secret information through another traitor or by breaking the electronic security systems. Or you can try information "leak" through publications in big newspapers — it looks like information is not secret and is known to many people or there’s another "mole. "
Recruit a small number of well-informed people. Do not recruit:
– volunteers (unless it’s a "mole" or other government employee who brings you top secret information right away. In a counter-intelligence set-up, a "volunteer" will try to get information about you, telling the minimum about himself. )
– persons with low educational and intellectual level
– people under 30 or over 70, unless it’s a VIP. (Did someone get Jim Baker? Dick Cheney? )
– mafia members
– people who are happy with their lives and careers
The best formula when you recruit is a mix of money and ideology (brainwashing). It’s not necessary to sign recruitment obligations — people take that as a blackmail tool. It’s enough if the fellow brings a good piece of information and get paid (make a video, anyway).
Priority recruitment candidates in the USA:
The White House staff
The Cabinet and federal agencies
The US Congress
Big scientific institutions
VIP world (celebrities – big media, show biz, big sport)
Candidates for recruitment
1. All spies who work in the USA under legal "cover" as diplomats, reporters, scientists, businessmen, actors, artists, musicians, sportsmen have the legal right to make and develop any contacts and invite people to private parties; then they "transfer" these contacts to professional recruiters. Any embassy can invite any politician to official and private parties and "work" with him there. Besides, all those people can invite prospective candidates to their countries or to other country to develop the contact; it’s much easier to recruit abroad. And remember, any contact, any talk, any piece of biography is already information.
2. You can get information about candidates through other agents and through the media.
3. It’s useful to install listening devices in the government buildings or listen to the phones, and collect compromising information on politicians. I recommend listening to the phones all over the city, if it’s the capital of the country.
1. Do not tell the agent about problems and mistakes of the agency, about your personal problems, about other agents, about his own file and compromising information you have on him.
2. Don’t show him any classified documents – you might provoke him to sell the information to somebody else.
3. Don’t trust your agents too much; they can use you to compromise their personal enemies.
4. Never criticize the source – be an adviser. Don’t talk straight if he avoids cooperation or brings you garbage – just reduce or stop payments, or get rid of him.
5. You lose the agent if you don’t pay him for a job well done, ask him to "produce" fake information (to show your bosses how much great espionage activity you have going on) or if you don’t care about his personal security and his personal problems (health, career). And — never give poison to your agent for security reasons.
Questioning the source
This is of extreme importance – the right question brings you the right answer and top secret info. Give your agent a chance to tell and show you everything he’s brought, no matter how chaotic the story might be or how ordinary the documents look. Don’t make written notices. Don’t bring written questions even if you are talking about some advanced technology — look and be professional. Don’t let the agent analyze the information before he talks to you and don’t let him bring it in a written form – it’s usually not complete; he can lose it; or it may be stolen from him. If there are documents, he has to bring a microfilm. Ask questions — when? where? what happened? why? what’s going to happen next?
After that you tell the story back to him and he adds details. At the end of the meeting give the agent another task and don’t ask him to bring you "something, " because he’ll bring you just that "something" and nothing else.
Remember, questioning is not interrogation; do not bring another officer to the meeting because it will look like cross interrogation.
Teaching the source
Teach your agent to:
– follow security rules while talking to people, working with the documents and especially meeting the officer (some foreign agencies practice open contacts with many people, hoping that the meeting with the agent won’t attract much attention — I don’t recommend that)
– always stay calm in stressful situations
– always keep discipline and come in time
– use analytic abilities working with people and documents – ask yourself as many questions as you can
Checking the source
You can never be sure you are not working with a "double agent, " even if he brings you top secret stuff. Besides, agents are human beings and they make mistakes — they forget about security, spend too much money, talk too much and ask extra questions; if arrested they may not play the hero but will tell everything. Anyway, you can check your source:
a. by fake arrest followed by severe interrogation.
b. through provocation (tell him you know about his "double game" and watch his behavior after the meeting (it’s good to have a listening device or a camera in his house).
c. by making an analysis of all the information and documents he delivers and comparing it with information from other sources.
d. through other agents.
e. through your "mole" in counter-intelligence (if you’re lucky).
f. through technical devices (reading the mail, listening to the phone, secret searching his house and office, watching him through hidden cameras, trying surveillance in the street).
Agent termination (one-way ticket)
It doesn’t happen often but you have to know some special situations when you have to terminate the agent:
1. He knows too much (talks too much) and is ready to betray you.
2. VIP agent (politician) is under suspicion and you can’t help him for political reasons (diplomatic, international scandal, etc. ) — in such a case an accident could be staged. It happens that the agent is too close to President.
3. Agent was involved in special operations (murders) and is dangerous as a witness.
4. Agent is trying to blackmail you.
5. You need to press (blackmail) other agents.
Putin and his crimes.
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54. Putin and his crimes. Case #54. Putin ready for WWIII. Mikhail Kryzhanovsky
55. Putin and his crimes. Case #55. Putin ready to assassinate Biden to put Trump back in the Oval Office. Mikhail Kryzhanovsky