PROFESSIONAL TERROR AND COUNTERTERROR by M. Kryzhanovsky, New York
Монография / Политика
By Mikhail kryzhanovsky, a former KGB sniper and CIA, FBI and the U. S. Secret Service killer "Filament
585-456-7836, New York
KGB instructions on terror – I got them at KGB PGU Institute (intelligence), Moscow, same Institute Putin graduated
I wrote them for CIA..
Stephen Paddoc, Las Vegas shooter, killed 53 and wounded 500 on October, 2, 2017.
October 2, 2017
Hillary Clinton: "The crowd fled at the sound of gunshots. Imagine the deaths if the shooter had a silencer".
THANK YOU, HILLARY, FOR A TIP!
T e r r o r is a political tactic, a form of unconventional and psychological warfare against people or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives.
The #1 method is the act of violence devised to have a big national or international impact.
“Red” terror is aimed against certain politicians; “black” refers more to mass murders. The two can be mixed.
– to scare the nation
– neutralize the government and show its inability to rule the country
– to make the government admit that terror organization is a real political power
– to draw media and public (international) attention to a certain political problem
– to provoke the government to use military force and start civil war
– to prove some political or religious ideology
– to prevent or delay important political decisions or legislation
– to discourage foreign investments or foreign government assistance programs
– change the government through revolution or civil war
Types of terror.
Political terrorism – violent acts designed primarily to generate fear in the nation for political purposes. Civil disorders are very effective here..
Non-political terrorism – terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes..
Official or state terrorism – referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.
Groups seeking recognition require events that have high probability of attracting media attention. Specific incidents may be suicide bombing in public place (e. g. a green market), hijacking of an aircraft, the kidnapping of a politician or other prominent person, the seizing of occupied buildings (schools, hospitals) or other hostage barricade situations. Once they gain attention, the terrorists may demand that political statement be disseminated. Terrorist groups sometimes use organizational names or labels designed to imply legitimacy or widespread support. For example, a tiny isolated group may use “front”, “army”, or “brigade” in its name to achieve this effect.
Coercion is the attempt to force a desired behavior by individuals, groups, or governments. This objective calls for a strategy of a very selective targeting which rely on publicly announced bombings, destruction of property and other acts which are initially less violent than the taking of human life. Contemporary examples include the bombing of corporate headquarters and banking facilities with little or no loss of life.
Intimidation attempts to prevent individuals or groups from acting: coercion attempts to force actions. Terrorists may use intimidation to reduce the effectiveness of security forces by making them afraid to act. Intimidation can discourage competent citizens from seeking or accepting positions within the government. The threat of violence can also keep the general public from taking part in important political activities such as voting. As in the case of coercion, terrorists use a strategy of selective targeting although they may intend the targets to look as though they were chosen indiscriminately.
Provoking overreaction on the part of government forces. The strategy normally calls for attacking targets symbolic of the government ( for example, the police, the military, and other officials). Attacks of this type demonstrate vulnerability to terrorist acts and contribute to a loss of confidence in the government’s ability to provide security. More important, if the security forces resort to a heavy-handed response, the resulting oppression can create public sympathy, passive acceptance, or active support for an insurgent or terrorist group.
5. Insurgency support.
Terrorism in support of an insurgency is likely to include provocation, intimidation, coercion and the quest for recognition.. Terrorism can also aid an insurgency by causing the government to overextend itself in attempting to protect all possible targets. Other uses of terrorist skills in insurgencies include acquiring funds, coercing recruits, obtaining logistical support, and enforcing internal discipline.
The media is a valuable “helper” by giving terrorists international recognition and also to attract recruits, obtaining funds. Once they gain attention, the terrorists may demand that political statements be disseminated. The danger is that this kind of attention tends to incite acts of violence by other terrorist groups. Terrorists use different methods and taking hostages, bombing, arson (low risk action) assassinations, ambushes and hijacking are the most popular ones.
Factors that may contribute to terrorism:high population growth rates, high unemployment, weak economies, extremism, ethnic, religious or territorial conflict.
Organization and tactic
Organized terror is “organized construction”:
–search and recruitment of people (active and passive supporters), including informants and supporters in government agencies, counterintelligence and police
–getting money (robberies, illegal operations with drugs and weapons, legal business, searching for donors with the same political views)
–security system, including a system of “cells” or small groups (some groups may organize multifunctional cells that combine several skills into one tactical unit). Preparing places where members can hide, relax, get medical care; keep weapons, money, special literature. System also includes fake IDs and counter-intelligence (detection of traitors, preventing collapse of the group and uncontrolled criminal activity (robberies)
–training camps (shooting, working with explosives). If the group is state supported or directed, the leadership usually includes one or more members who have been trained and educated by the sponsoring state
–“brainwashing” sessions (the group may include professional terrorists for hire who are not necessarily ideologically motivated)
–planning the actions
–making special connections with other groups and mafia
The typical terrorist organization is pyramidal. This format takes more people to support operations than to carry them out. Therefore, the majority of people who work in terrorist organizations serve to keep terrorists in the field. The most common job in terrorist groups is support, not combat.
Usually, organization is divided into 4 levels:
1st level. Command level. The smallest, most secret group at the top.
2nd level. Active cadre. Responsible for carrying out the mission of the terrorist organization..
3rd level. Active supporters. The active supporters are critical to terrorist operations. Any group can carry out a bombing, but to maintain a campaign of bombings takes support. Active supporters keep the terrorists in the field. They maintain communication channels, provide safe houses, gather intelligence. This is the largest internal group in the organization, and one which can be effectively countered by economic measures.
4th level. Passive supporters.
Most terrorist groups number fewer than 50 people and are incapable of mounting a long-term campaign. Under the command of only a few people, the group is divided according to specific tasks. Intelligence sections are responsible for assessing targets and planning operations. Support sections provides the means necessary to carry out the assault, and the tactical units are responsible for the actual terrorist action.
Terrorist organizations tend to have two primary types of subunits: a cell and a column.
The cell is the most basic type. Composed of 4 to 6 people, the cell usually has a mission specialty, but it my be a tactical cell or an intelligence section. In some organizations, the duties of tactical cells very with the assignment. Other cells may exist as support wing.
Sometimes groups of cells will form to create columns. Columns are semiautonomous conglomerations of cells with a variety of specialties and a separate command structure. As combat units, columns have questionable effectiveness. They are usually too cumbersome to be used in major operations, and the secrecy demanded by terrorism prevents effective inter-column cooperation. Hence, columns are most often found fulfilling a function of combat support.
Terrorist groups can be divided into three categories:
a. non-state supported groups which operate autonomously, receiving no support from any government
b. state supported groups, which operate alone but receive support from one or more governments
c. state directed groups, which operate as the agents of a government, receiving substantial intelligence, logistic, and operational support
An overt seizure of one or more people to gain publicity, concessions, or ransom in return for the release of the hostage or hostages. While dramatic, hostage situations are risky for the terrorist in an unfriendly environment..
You must always negotiate if hostages have been taken. Negotiation produces some advantages for you. These advantages are: (a) the longer situation is prolonged, the more intelligence can be gathered on the location, motivation and identity, (b) the passage of time generally reduces anxiety, allowing the hostage taker to assess the situation rationally, (c) given enough time, the hostages may find a way to escape on their own, (c) the necessary resolve to kill or hold hostages lessens with timer, (d) terrorists may make mistakes. The negotiation team must have information to support negotiations (you get it from interviews with witnesses, escaped and released hostages, and captured suspects — it’s very important to get the identities, personalities, motives, habits and abilities of the offenders).
One of the complications facing you in a siege involving hostages is the Stockholm syndrome where sometimes hostages can develop a sympathetic rapport with their captors. If this helps keep them safe from harm, this is considered to be a good thing, but there have been cases where hostages have tried to shield the captors during an assault or refused to co- operate with the authorities in bringing prosecutions. (In Britain if the siege involves perpetrators who are considered by the government to be terrorists, then if an assault is to take place, the civilian authorities hand command and control over to military).
Advantage includes it’s attention-getting capacity and the terrorist’s ability to control casualties through time of detonation and placement of the device. The bomb is a popular weapon, because it is cheap to produce, easy to make, has variable uses, and is difficult to detect and trace after the action. In Iraq they usually use booby-trapped vehicles and car- bombs. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other vehicle and then exploded. It is commonly used as a weapon of assassination, terrorism or guerrilla warfare to kill the occupant(s) of the vehicle, people near the blast site, or to damage buildings or other property. Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a relatively large amount of explosives without attracting suspicion. The earliest car bombs were intended for assassination. These were often wired to the car’s ignition system – to explode when the car was started. Ignition triggering is now rare, as it is easy to detect and hard to install – interfering with the circuitry is time-consuming and car alarms can be triggered by drains on the car’s electrical system. Also, the target may start the car remotely (inadvertently or otherwise), or the target may be a passenger a safe distance away when the car starts. It is now more common for assassination bombs to be affixed to the underside of the car and then detonated remotely or by the car motion. The bomb is exploded as the target approaches or starts the vehicle or, more commonly, after the vehicle begins to move, when the target is more likely to be inside. For
this reason, security guards have to check the underside of vehicles with a long mirror mounted on a pole.
The effectiveness of a car bomb is that an explosion detonated inside a car is momentarily contained. If the force of explosion were to double each fraction of a second and the car were to contain the explosion for one second before its chassis gave way, this would result in a much greater force then if the detonation took place outside the car. Therefore a greater amount of damage is obtained from a given amount of explosive. Car bombs are also used by suicide bombers who seek to ram the car into a building and simultaneously detonate it. Defending against a car bomb involves keeping vehicles at a distance from vulnerable targets by using Jersey barriers, concrete blocks or by hardening buildings to withstand an explosion. Where major public roads pass near government buildings, road closures may be the only option (thus, the portion of Pennsylvania Avenue immediately behind the White house is closed to traffic. These tactics encourage potential bombers to target unprotected targets, such as markets.
A major reason for the popularity of suicide attacks is tactical advantages over other types of terrorism. A terrorist can conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, infiltrate heavily guarded targets and he does not need a remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams. Suicide attacks often target poorly- guarded, non-military facilities and personnel. Examples of different suicide attacks include:
–attempted suicide attack with a plane as target
–suicide car bomb
–suicide attack by a boat with explosives
–suicide attack by a woman
–suicide attack by a bicycle with explosives
–suicide attack by a hijacked plane with fuel: September 11, 2001 attacks
–suicide attack by diverting a bus to an abyss
–suicide attack with guns
A well-planned ambush seldom fails. The terrorists have time on their side, and can choose a suitable place. Raid (armed attack) on facilities usually have one of three purposes: to gain access to radio or TV stations (to make a public statement); to demonstrate the government’s inability to guarantee the security of critical facilities; or to acquire money and weapons ( by bank pr armory robberies).
Assassination is the oldest terrorist tactic. Targets mostly are government officials, as well as the defectors from the terrorist group.
Kidnapping is usually a covert action and the perpetrators may not make themselves known for some time, while hostage
–takers seek immediate publicity. Because of the time involved, a successful kidnapping requires elaborate planning and logistics, although the risk to the terrorists is less than in a hostage situation.
Its objective is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to the terrorists’ actions on utilities, communications and transportation systems. In the more developed countries they are so interdependent that a serious disruption of one affects all and gains immediate public attention. Sabotage of industrial, commercial or military facilities is a tool to show vulnerability of the target and the society while simultaneously making a statement or political, or monetary demand.
A threat against a person’s life causes him and those around him to devote more time and effort to security measures.. A bomb threat can close down a commercial building, empty a theater, or disrupt a transportation system at no cost to the terrorist. The longer-term effects of false alarms on the security forces are more dangerous than the temporary disruption of the hoax. Repeated threats that do not materialize dull the analytical and operational effectiveness of security personnel.
Homegrown terrorists are not easy targets, especially if you deal with a "lonely wolf" (individual) or a separate small group of 2-3 people. They are not connected to any terrorist groups, organizations, radical parties, mafia.
That's why you have to:
1. Recruit assets among illegal weapons dealers, they have to inform you about anybody, trying to buy a gun and a lot of ammunition, automatic weapons, explosives.
2. The assets have to inform you about any person with radical views and ready for radical action (to blackmail the government and make it change it's policy).
NSA has to fix all phone calls where you hear key words like "kill", "gun", "explosive", "explosion", "FBI", "surveillance", "kidnapping", "sniper", "torture", etc.
3. Detect people who search Internet, looking for instructions on "home made" explosives.
4. Watch terrorists in jail – they might keep contacts with with those outside. Watch terrorists who are out of jail.
5. Keep under control all shooting ranges in the country and people who try to get training as snipers.
6. ATTENTION: keep under control scientists who work with explosives. And companies which produce weapons, explosives, and sell them.
7. Watch army veterans with radical views, pay special attention to those who served in special forces and involved in war zones special operations.
Now comes my instruction
Responses to terrorism include:
–targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations and enhanced police powers
–target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers
–pre-emptive or reactive military action
–increased intelligence and surveillance activities
–pre-emptive humanitarian activities
–more permissive interrogation and detention policies
–official acceptance of torture as a valid tool
You must gather the following information:
1. Group information.
Names, ideology (political or social philosophy), history of the group, dates significant to the group, and dates when former leaders have been killed or imprisoned (terrorist groups often strike on important anniversary dates).
2. Financial information.
Source of funds, proceeds from criminal activities, bank accounts information (sudden influxes of funding or bank withdrawals indicate preparation for activity). It’s also important to determine the group’s legal and financial supporters. Generally, anyone who would write an official letter of protest or gather names on a petition for a terrorist is a legal supporter. Sometimes, an analysis of support will reveal linkages and mergers with other groups.
3. Personnel information.
List of leaders, list of members (and former members), any personnel connections with other groups of similar ideology. The skills of all group members (weapons expertise, electronics expertise) – knowing the skills of the group is an important part of threat assessment. If the philosophy revolves around one leader, it’s important to know what will occur if something happens to that leader. Often, the analysis of family background is useful to determine how radically a leader or member was raised. Group structure, particularly if the organizational pattern is cellular, determines who knows whom.
As a group, terrorists are very team-oriented and always prepared for suicide missions. They are well-prepared for their mission, are willing to take risks and are attack-oriented. If captured, they will usually not confess or snitch on others as ordinary criminals do. Traditional law enforcement are not that effective when it comes to the investigation or intelligence of terrorism.
4. Location information.
Location of group’s headquarters, location of group’s “safe” houses (where they hide from authorities) and location of the group’s “stash” houses (where they hide weapons and supplies). Regular attacks on “stash” houses is the most frequently used counterterrorism technique). It’ important to specify the underground that exists where terrorists can flee. Terrorists like to live in communal homes instead of living alone.
1. Knowing just the functions of terrorism is a fight. Since terrorists are usually trying to provoke government’s overreaction, anything the government can do to keep itself from overreacting works against them.
2. Since terrorists are usually trying to provoke government’s overreaction, anything the government can do to keep itself from overreacting works against them. Since terrorists are trying to gain control of the media, anything on the part of the media which stifles exposure also stiles terrorism. Bombings make the best pictures (watch TV! ), that’s why terrorists use them mostly.
3. Terrorists often demand to release political prisoners, but this is never a true objective. The real trick is politization of all prisoners, the winning over of new recruits among the prison population.
4. Go after financial supporters of terrorism, not the terrorists themselves. It’s only with narcoterrorism that this strategy fails, since the drug market doesn’t respond to simple supply-demand forces.
5. Terrorists are imitators, not innovators. They often wait until some other group makes the first move. Most of them do this because they are sorely trying to imitate military strategy, others do it because of standardized paramilitary training or textbook lessons in guerrilla tactics, and still others do it to throw off suspicion from themselves..
6. The Stockholm Syndrome works in the favor of anti-terrorist forces. The longer the hostages stay alive, the less likelihood harm will come to them. With this syndrome, the hostages come to think of their captors as protecting them from the police and soon start to identify with their captors. The captors themselves start to develop a parent/child relationship with their hostages. Other syndromes include the Penelope Syndrome, where women find violent criminals sexually attractive.
7. In assessing the threat of terrorism, it’s important to concentrate on counting the number of incidents, not the number of victims or the value of harm. The only true comparison is the number of attacks since terrorists often have no idea themselves about how many victims will be killed by their actions. Nationalist groups tend to seek a high number of fatalities while revolutionary groups tend to seek fewer deaths and more wounds or injuries. Splinter or spin-off groups seem more interested in death counts and fatalities. The point is that no matter how many victims are targeted, the group is only a threat via its number of attacks as a percent of total activity.
8. Do count the number of victims saved by any preventive action. If you manage through some leverage to get the terrorist leader to stop things with a cease-fire agreement, regardless of whether further negotiation follows or not, it will help your agency if you have calculated how many lives you’ve saved, and can report this information to policymakers. Everyone wins by a cease-fire – the terrorist leaders look good, your leaders look good too. After the cease-fire, it’s important to also measure the resumed level of violence and compare to pre-cease-fire levels.
9. Giving into terrorists’ demands for political change only changes the pattern of violence, not violence itself. Economic and political reforms aimed at helping a certain group and resolving its grievances will win over some supporters among the general population, but in the long-run, will create new problems and a new set of grievances over the precise implementation of policy and the degree of power sharing. A much better strategy is to initiate economic and political reforms for all nation. Economic development solutions have worked in Ireland, Uruguay andItaly.
10. Reduction of recruits, supplies and support. You have to reduce the number of active trainee members of the terrorist organization. Capture and imprisonment works (it has helped to keep Spain fairly terrorism-free), as well as preemptive strikes against training camps. The number of terrorists captured or killed should be counted, and this can be put as the denominator in a fraction with the number of government security forces killed in the numerator. You’ve also got to keep weapons, ammo and supplies out of hands of terrorists by destruction of their “stash” houses. Unfortunately, many religious terrorist groups operate under the cover of religion and blowing up religious buildings has a strong negative effect.
11. Terrorism does not respond to coalition-based sanctions which are intended to express the international community’s disregard for them. Terrorist actually want their enemies to wage a war on terrorism because this gives them some pseudo-legitimacy that they are soldiers-at war. If they are broken up from receiving any psychological rewards or sympathy from their social support groups, this strategy might work.
12. Sharing of information and intelligence by counter-terrorism agents is essential. But there’s always a threat, thata secret source might be “burnt out” during such“sharing”.
13. Terrorist groups with a cell structure are most likely to thwart human intelligence since the purpose of the cell structure is to prevent any members from knowing who is the immediate leader. This may or may not be true with some groups (like the IRA) which mix family with business, depending upon levels of fidelity. The best approach for such groups may electronic surveillance. However, groups with military or paramilitary organization might be easier to infiltrate or penetrate.
In November, 2011 more than a dozen spies working for the CIA in Iran and Lebanon have been caught and the U. S. government fears they will be or have been executed. The spies were paid informants recruited by the CIA for two distinct espionage rings targeting Iran and the Beirut-based Hezbollah organization.
In Beirut, two Hezbollah double agents pretended to go to work for the CIA. Hezbollah then learned of the Beirut Pizza Hut restaurant where multiple CIA officers were meeting with several agents, according to the four current and former officials briefed on the case. The CIA used the code word "PIZZA" when discussing where to meet with the agents. From there, Hezbollah's internal security arm identified at least a dozen informants, and the identities of several CIA case officers.
CIA officers ignored the rule that the operation could be compromised by using the same location for meetings with multiple assets. Idiots who loved free pizza paid by the U. S. government too much.
Use special influence methods against terrorists
Torture is a category of methods of interrogation designed to shock, hurt and humiliate the object and get information or to make him do something (if used for blackmail). Points to remember:
–ongoing torture decreases pain sensitivity
–people with strong will power take torture as a test
–resistance to torture is often a form of hysterics after arrest
–the object could take himself as a martyr if you torture him too much
–torture could damage object’s psyche and you won’t be able to work with him (that’s why we keep terrorists in Guantanamo Bay without trial – we turn them into idiots)
–people usually trust "after torture information" more than voluntary confessions
–there are different types of torture and professionals often combine them
Techniques of psychological torture include:
– fake execution
– complete isolation ("wall therapy")
– daylight deprivation
– forcible narcotics addiction. Here you can use depressants, stimulants, opiates or hallucinogens : depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs
with effects of euphoria, tension reduction,, muscle relaxation, drowsiness; stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine (crystal meth), with effects of fast
euphoria, exhilaration, high physical and mental energy, reduced appetite, perceptions of power, and sociability; hallucinogens with effects of euphoria, hallucinations, distorted perceptions and sensations
–making the object observe others being tortured (such as family members)
–abuse of object’s national, religious feelings or political views)
The effects of psychological torture are: anxiety, depression, fear, psychosis, difficulty concentrating, communication disabilities, insomnia, impaired memory, headaches, hallucinations, sexual disturbances, destruction of self-image, inability to socialize
Techniques of physical torture include:
–food, water, sleep deprivation
–damage to vital body organs (brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, private parts) plus electric shock. The brain is particularly dependent on a continuous and stable supply of oxygen and glucose.
–water cure ( the torturer pours water down the throat of the subject to inflict the terror of drowning. In another variation, the subject is tied or held don in a chair, his face is covered with a cloth or plastic sheet, and water is poured slowly or quickly over his face to encourage him to talk
The effects of physical torture are: extreme (unbearable) pain, hypertension, fatigue, cardiopulmonary and other disorders, brain atrophy.